Images of West Michigan's Civil War Military History

Traditions tell us of Indian battles fought along the Grand River between the different tribes, long years before the white man decided to add this region to his dominion, and  the burial grounds and their indestructible contents, the large number of arrow heads and implements of Indian warfare found along both sides of the river seem to bear out those traditions. The victorious tribe doubtless made the site of Grand Rapids its home for many years, and was quite probably resident here when the section was first visited by white men. Details of the battle or battles are naturally lacking, although much has been surmised, but as the battles, if any there were, do not properly belong to the military history of the city or county it is unnecessary to present the deductions drawn by imaginative brains.

There are no records to show that any steps were taken for the organization of a military company here prior to the Mexican war. Upon the outbreak of that conflict, in 1846,  although the army raised for its prosecution was not large, and Grand Rapids at that time was but a mere hamlet, the martial spirit was aroused, and a considerable number went out from here to join in the hostilities. A portion of one company for that service was raised in Grand Rapids. After the close of the Mexican war, the chief local incitement to military ardor for some years was the tenor of news occasionally received from the West, of conflicts with the border savages. Now and then an officer of the United States army would obtain some enlistments from Grand Rapids and vicinity for frontier service. So the military spirit did not wholly die out, and besides, the people were fully alive to the soundness of the advice given by Washington, to keep ourselves always in a respectable attitude for defense.

On Jul 12, 1855, two local military companies were organized and their officers elected. One was the Grand Rapids Light Guards, and the name of W. L. Coffinberry headed the list of men of members of this company. He was at that time city surveyor at Grand Rapids and was made captain of the company. T he other commissioned officers were F. W. Worden, first lieutenant; E. T. Nelson, second lieutenant, and A. L Gage, third lieutenant.

The other company was the Grand Rapids Artillery, a west side company, with Luscious Patterson as captain, and Baker Borden, William K. Wheeler and Alfred B. Turner, lieutenants. The first named of these companies was shortly afterward reorganized, with Daniel McConnell as captain, and the name was changed to Valley City Light Guards, and subsequently further shortened to Valley City Guards. In 1856 Mrs. James Lyman started a a movement to procure a banner for this company, and a beautiful silk ensign was made by the Misses Ferguson, the presentation of which, to the company was an event of considerable public interest in those rather unmilitary days.

Soon afterward the Ringgold Light Artillery was organized, with Stephen G. Champlin as captain, and about this time the three companies were mustered into the Fifty-first Uniformed Michigan militia, of which Daniel McConnell was colonel, Orville C. HartweIl was lieutenant-colonel, and S. G. Champlin and Ammon Wilson, majors. These three companies were out on parade for review, Jan. 7, 1858. Another company, the Grand Rapids Rifles, composed mostly of German citizens, was organized in 1859, and this as well as the Valley City Guards, when the war with the South broke out, went with unbroken ranks into the Union Army. So much for military matters and the martial spirit prevailing in Grand Rapids previous to the coming on of the Civil war, in 1861.

Images of West Michigan's Civil War Period.

On April 15, 1861, the day after the fall of Fort Sumter and the day of President Lincoln's first call for troops, a war meeting was held in Luce's Hall, corner of Monroe and Ottawa streets, addressed by Col. A. T. McReynolds and others. The hall was filled to overflowing, and a spirit of intense patriotism was manifested. The pervading sentiment was to the effect that the Union must be preserved at all hazards and that the people of this county and valley would come to the front to a man, if need be, armed and equipped, for the support of the National Government. One week later another meeting was held and the city was aglow with patriotic ardor. On April 16 Governor Blair issued a call for volunteers to fill Michigan's quota and the work of enlisting was at once begun. Grand Rapids was not assigned a company in the First regiment, of which Col. John C. Robinson, then a captain in the United States army, was given command. Enlistments and company organizations followed in rapid succession all over the State, and while no completed organization from Kent County was in the three months' service, there were a goodly number of enlistments from Grand River Valley in the different companies of the regiment. The professions, merchants, mechanics, farmer boys and laborers, all were imbued with the same spirit and promptly laid aside their several vocations and joined in the supreme effort to preserve the Union of States. Gentlemen of the cloth laid aside their shepherd's crooks and went to the front in various capacities. During the four years of, bloody warfare Michigan met every call for troops in advance of the time limit, and Kent County was always among the first to respond with her quota. While the "boys" were at the front the citizens at home were not idle, and the devoted mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts, imbued with the same spirit which had taken their loved ones from them, assisted in organizing varied relief associations. There was outward show of sympathy and interest during the first few months, but by the following year, after the disaster of the Peninsular campaign, matters settled down to a war basis and sentiment was banished in the interest of helpful needs. Public and private donations to the Federal cause were kept up until the final capitulation at Appomattox. It is not possible to trace the record of all of Kent county's valiant soldiers through the changing fortunes of four years of bloody war; neither would space permit, were it possible. Without disparagement to the heroic services of any, it shall be the purpose of these to mention the organizations, which, as a whole, were more closely connected with Kent County than other military organizations. While other regiments may have achieved equal honors on the bloody fields, it is morally certain that none surpassed those hereinafter mentioned in the performance of stern duty, and in which this county was so represented.

Image of the Third Michigan at the Battle of Bull Run

The Third Michigan infantry was organized at Grand Rapids, in April and May, 1861, and was mustered in on June 10. The Valley City Guards tendered their services, were accepted, and formed a company in this regiment. It left the State on June 13 and was attached to Richardson's brigade, Tyler's division, and McDowell's corps. It was engaged at Blackburn's Ford and Bull Run (image above), and a detachment was in the engagement at the Occoquan River.

The regiment encamped near Alexandria during the winter, under command of Colonel Champlin, Colonel McConnell having resigned, and in the Spring was assigned to the Third brigade, First division, and Third corps. It participated in the battle of Williamsburg and at Fair Oaks lost 30 killed, 124 wounded, and 15 missing. In the Seven Days' battles it fought at Savage Station, Peach Orchard, Charles City Cross-roads, and Malvern Hill, July 1. Prince de Joinville, speaking of the brigade, said of its work at Fair Oaks: “It advanced firm as a wall into the midst of the disordered mass - and did more by its example than the most powerful reinforcement.” The regiment was engaged at Groveton, again sustaining losses, and was at Chantilly on Sept. 1. It then was on the march and in camp at various points in Maryland and Virginia, finally going into camp at Falmouth, on Oct. 23. It was under fire three days at the first battle of Fredericksburg, and then encamped near Falmouth until May 1, I863. It fought at Chancellorsville, losing 63, and at Gettysburg, losing 41. It then moved to Manassas Gap and was engaged at Wapping Heights. It was ordered to New York at the time of the draft, in August, but returned to Culpepper in September; was in a skirmish at Auburn Heights, in October; and in the battle at Kelly's Ford on the Rappahannock, the following month. It took part in the Mine Run campaign, engaged the enemy at Locust Grove, and at Mine Run charged the enemy's works, driving him from three lines of rifle pits. The regiment went into camp at Brandy Station on Dec. 2, where 207 of the men re-enlisted and were furloughed home, rejoining the regiment in mid-winter. On May 4, 1864, the regiment encamped at Chancellorsville, being then in the Second brigade, Third Division, and Second Corps and in the Battle of the Wilderness it again sustained heavy loss. It fought at Todd's Tavern; participated in a successful charge at Spotsylvania, capturing a number of prisoners and two flags; was engaged at the North Anna, its losses in the engagement of May being 31 killed, 119 wounded, and 29 missing. It fought at Cold Harbor, and on June 9 the regiment, with the exception of the reenlisted men and recruits, was ordered home for discharge. The remaining officers and men were formed into a battalion of four companies and attached to the Fifth Michigan infantry. This regiment was mustered out at Detroit, June 20, 1864. Its total strength was 1,000, its loss by death 224. As soon as it was mustered out orders were issued to reorganize the regiment. This was done during the summer and it was mustered in at Grand Rapids on Oct. 15. It left the State, Oct. 20, reported at Nashville and was ordered to Decatur, Ala., where it was stationed during November, being in a small engagement on the 23rd. It was then ordered to Fort Rosecrans, Murfreesboro. The pickets being forced in and the town possessed by Faulkner's brigade four companies of the Third joined other companies in a spirited engagement, repulsing the enemy. The regiment was in numerous small affairs and on Jan. 16, 1865, it moved to Huntsville, Ala., where it was assigned to the Third brigade, Third division, and Fourth army corps. It moved to Jonesboro, and was ordered to Nashville on April 20. On June 15 it was sent to Texas, reaching Green Lake on July 11, and on Sept. 12 it started for San Antonio, reaching there two weeks later. It engaged in provost guard duty and during the winter two companies were on guard duty at Gonzales. The regiment was mustered out at Victoria, May 26, 1866. It marched to the sea, reached Savannah on Sept. 16, and engaged in the siege. It made the campaign of the Carolinas, being engaged at Catawba River, Averasboro and Bentonville, sustaining in the last action a loss of 110, its commanding officer, Colonel Eaton, being among the killed. It was in the Grand Review at Washington, and was mustered out at Louisville on July 25, 1865. January 14, 1864, when 414 reenlisted. The veterans of Companies C, F, G, I and K were furloughed in February and the others m March. The re-enlistments had been made with the understanding that the regiment would be continued as mounted infantry. This was disregarded and great dissatisfaction was felt, but the regiment was loyal and continued to perform its duties. It joined Sherman's army in the advance through Georgia ; was engaged at Kennesaw Mountain; charged the rifle pits at the Chattahoochee River, capturing many prisoners; was active during the siege of Atlanta; carried a line of works at Jonesboro, capturing four pieces of artillery, four caissons, a general and his staff, the colors of the First Arkansas, and 300 men. It was engaged at Florence, Alabama, in September; marched with Sherman to Savannah; and in the Carolina campaign was engaged at Fayetteville, where it drove the enemy two miles, capturing his camp and a large quantity of forage; at Averasboro and at Bentonville, where it charged the works, captured 270 prisoners, the colors of the Fortieth North Carolina, and 600 stands of arms. A later charge carried the works, 135 prisoners and the colors of the Fifty-fourth Virginia being taken. The next morning the regiment was in a desperate encounter for nearly an hour and in a continual skirmish all day. It encamped at Goldsboro, from March 23 to April 10, and at the Cape Fear River until the surrender of Johnston's army. It participated the Grand Review at Washington, was sent to Louisville in June, and was mustered out on July 18.


Image of the 8th Michigan at the charge during the battle of Secessionville

The Eighth Michigan Regiment of infantry (Battle of Secessionville above) was organized at Grand Rapids, in August, 1861, and was ordered to Fort Wayne, Detroit, arriving there, Sept. 16. It was mustered in, Sept. 23, and left the State, Sept. 27, and went into camp at Meridian Hill, near Washington, on the 30th. On October 10 it joined the Second brigade, Expeditionary corps, under Gen. T. W. Sherman, and moved to Hilton Head by steamer, reaching there, Nov. 8, after a small engagement at Port Royal, S. C, (see image below) the previous day. It moved to Beaufort on December 6 and was under fire at Coosaw River and Port Royal Ferry. It was in camp at Gray's Hill and Beaufort during the month of January, 1862, on drill, picket, guard and reconnoitering duty until April 9, when it moved to Tybee Island, Ga., and was at the fall of Fort Pulaski. On April 16 seven companies embarked for Wilmington Island as an escort and were in a skirmish with the Thirteenth Georgia, 800 strong, routing it, but losing 11 killed and 34 wounded. The regiment was on drill and picket duty until June 1, was then attached to the First brigade, Second division, and participated in the assault on the works on James Island, losing 13 killed, 98 wounded, 35 captured and 36 missing, out of a total of 534. It was a dashing affair, but unsuccessful. The regiment moved for Newport News on July 5, and on Aug. 4 proceeded toward the upper Potomac. It was at the second battle of Bull Run; fought at Chantilly; was heavily engaged at South Mountain and Antietam; moved into Virginia again in September, and was at Falmouth from November 18 until December 12. It was engaged at Fredericksburg and then encamped near Falmouth until Feb. 13, 1863, and at Newport News until March 19. It was then stationed at Louisville and Lebanon, Ky., until June, and was in the siege of Vicksburg from June 22 until July 4. It was then engaged at Jackson, moved back to Milldale, near Vicksburg, on the 23rd, and marched toward Crab Orchard early in August, reaching there on the 27th. On Sept. 10 it proceeded to Knoxville, Tenn., remained in camp from Sept. 26 to Oct. 3, and was engaged in the Blue Springs affair on the 10th. It was engaged at Loudon and Lenoir’s Station, Campbell’s Station, and in the defense of Knoxville, where it was stationed at Fort Sanders. After the siege it encamped at Blain's Cross-roads, where 283 reenlisted as veterans and were furloughed home through February. They rejoined the regiment in March with a large number of recruits. The regiment was engaged at the battle of the Wilderness, driving the enemy from their first line of rifle-pits, and losing 99 in killed, wounded and missing, among them Colonel Graves. At Spottsylvania it assaulted the enemy's entrenchments and lost 49. It was then successively engaged the North Anna, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, and the first assaults at Petersburg losing 49 men, and remained in the trenches constantly under fire until July 30, when it participated in the engagement following the explosion of the mine. It fought at the We1don Railroad, Reams' Station, Poplar Spring Church, Pegram's Farm, Boydton Road, and Hatcher's Run, and was on picket and trench duty through the winter. It assisted in repelling the assault on Fort Stedman, in March, 1865, and was in the final assault of April 2. It was among the first to enter Petersburg, on April 3. It remained on guard duty until the 20th and took transports for Alexandria on the 21st. On May 9, the regiment entered  Washington, was assigned to guard and patrol duty, and was mustered out, July 30, 1865.

Image of graves of Officers and men killed at Port Royal


The Thirteenth Michigan infantry was organized at Kalamazoo in the Fall and Winter of 1861. It was mustered in, Jan. 17, l861, and left the State, Feb. 12. Col. Charles E. Stuart having resigned, Col. Michael Shoemaker took command. The regiment was ordered to Nashville, where it formed part of Wood's division of Buell's arm and was on the forced march for the relief of Grant at Shiloh, reaching the battlefield on the second day. It was then engaged at Farmington, Owl Creek, and in the siege of Corinth. On June 2 it moved eastward with Buell's army and was on fortification work and guard duty at Stevenson, Alabama, from July 18 to Aug. 21, when the post of Stevenson was placed under Colonel Shoemaker's command, the Thirteenth Michigan, with four companies from other regiments and Simonson's Indiana battery being left as a garrison, the post becoming a depot of supplies and for convalescents. On the 30th instructions were received to leave, as the enemy was congregating in force. The following morning a force of Confederate cavalry was seen near the fort and scatted by the artillery, skirmishers following until they came upon a heavy force, which fired upon them. The fort was attacked at 10 o'clock, the fight continuing until 3 p. m. Reinforcements arrived at that time and all stores, baggage and convalescents were placed on trains for Nashville. The march for Nashville was begun at 5 p. m., the Thirteenth bringing up the rear and keeping off the enemy's attack. Left far in the rear by the other regiments and the artillery, the regiment joined its division on Sept. 3, after being given up for lost. Nashville was reached on the 6th. The regiment joined in pursuit of Bragg, was engaged at Munfordville, The battle of Perryville, and at Danville. It was stationed at Silver springs, Tenn., in early November, and on the 10th joined the forces that rove the enemy from Lebanon. It was on train guard and picket duty at Nashville until Dec. 26, being engaged in the meantime at Gallatin and Mill Creek. It moved on Murfreesboro with the Third brigade, First division, Thomas' corps; was on the skirmish line and in the desperate engagements at Stone's River, losing 95 in killed, wounded and missing. When the right wing was being driven back in confusion on the first day of the battle the brigade to which the Thirteenth was attached advanced to the extreme right and formed in line of battle, becoming hotly engaged. The battery supporting the regiment opened rapid fire, but the other regiments of the brigade passed to the rear and thus forced it to take a new position, from which it was again driven with a loss of two guns. All the other regiments falling back a second time, the Thirteenth was left alone to meet two brigades. By a steady fire it checked the advance, dropped back to a better position, then charged the advancing brigades with bullet and bayonet, scattering them and regaining the lost ground, retaking the two captured guns and capturing 68 prisoners. This gallant act was accompanied by a loss of 35 per cent of its numbers engaged. "Great praise is due this regiment," said the Nashville Union, “for the unparalleled gallantry, both of officers and men, who are said to have fought like heroes. Truly Michigan has reason to be proud of the troops she has sent out." The regiment was stationed at Murfreesboro until June 24, 1863, when it was assigned to the First brigade, First division, Twentieth corps, and advanced on Tullahoma, following Bragg after his evacuation of that place. It was in an engagement at Pelham, in July, and was then in camp at Hillsborn until Aug. 16, when the army advanced into Georgia. It fought at Lookout Valley, was in the engagement at Chickamauga, making a charge and losing 107 in killed, wounded and missing. The regiment was organized as engineers in November, assigned to duty at Chattanooga, and participated at Missionary Ridge. It was stationed at Chickamauga, in December and January, and there 173 reenlisted as veterans and were furloughed home. They rejoined the regiment in April with over 400 recruits and the command was stationed at Lookout Mountain during the summer. It was relieved from duty as engineers, Sept. 25, 1864, and assigned to the Second brigade, First Division, Fourteenth corps, joining it at Rome, Georgia.

The Fourteenth Michigan infantry was organized at Ypsilanti and was mustered in, Feb. 13, 1862. It left the State, April 17, and joined the army at Pittsburg Landing. It participated in the siege of Corinth during May and was engaged at Famngton. After the siege of Corinth it moved with Buell’s army, being finally stationed at Tuscumbia, Alabama. On Sept. 1 it joined in the march for Louisville, but was detached at Nashville and participated in the engagement at La Vergne, routing the Thirty-second Alabama, taking a fort and 100 prisoners. A few days later it was in the fight at Nashville, was also in a severe engagement at Brentwood and was stationed at Stone's River in November and part of December. It participated in the battle there after a thirty-mile march through mud and rain the previous night, and was then engaged in railroad guard and picket duty at Nashville, Franklin and Brentwood, during the Winter and Spring. Late in the summer the command was mounted, and in August, Company C assisted in the capture of a notorious guerilla band commanded by Dick McCann, at Weems' Springs. In the affair at Lawrenceburg, in November, 120 men defeated 400 cavalry. Guerillas were captured and scattered and many inhabitants induced to take the oath of allegiance while the regiment was stationed at Franklin and Columbia, during the fall. It became a veteran regiment,

Image of the Battle of Murfreesboro

The Twenty-first Michigan infantry was organized at Ionia and was mustered in, Sept. 4, 1862. Its General was Ambrose Stevens. It left the State on Sept. 12, reported at Cincinnati, was sent to Louisville, entered upon the march through Kentucky, and was in the battle of Perryville, rendering efficient service. It reached Nashville, Nov. 12, and joined the advance toward Murfreesboro, being engaged at La Vergne, Stewart's Creek and at Stone's River, where it lost 17 killed, 85 wounded, and 37 missing. It was with Sill's brigade, Sheridan’s division, which blocked the enemy and saved the army. It remained on picket and guard duty at Murfreesboro until June, (image above) when it moved to Tullahoma, and was afterward stationed at Cowan, Anderson’s Station, and Bridgeport. On Sept. 2 it advanced into Georgia, participated in the battle of Chickamauga, with the same brigade as at Stone's River, and was in the hottest of the fight after the breaking of the line by Longstreet. Sheridan's division was forced back, but in good order, and by a charge drove the enemy back and regained its position. Being unsupported, it was again driven back, the Twenty-first losing 11 killed, 58 wounded, 35 missing and 3 prisoners. It was detached to form part of the engineer brigade and was engaged in that work during the battle of Missionary Ridge. It was stationed near Chattanooga until June 1864, building a bridge and erecting storehouses. On June 11, it was ordered to Lookout Mountain, engaging in building hospitals, running mills, and on picket duty. It was relieved from engineer duty in September and joined Rousseau's forces in pursuit of Forrest into Alabama. It was ordered to Chattanooga and Dalton, Georgia, in October, and received orders on Nov. 1 to join the Second brigade, First division, Fourteenth army corps, for the march to the sea. It moved to Milledgeville, then toward Augusta, but changed its course and marched to Savannah, where the regiment was in the trenches on short rations and without covering until Dec. 18. After the evacuation it refitted for the Carolina campaign, proceeded to Sister's Ferry, where it crossed the Savannah River, Feb. 5, was in the engagement at Averasboro, and was heavily engaged at Bentonville, losing 92 officers and men, killed and wounded out of 230. It reached Goldsboro on March 25, after a sixty-four days' march, with an issue of but twelve days' rations. It moved to Haywood, where it remained until Johnston’s surrender, and then marched to Richmond, 280 miles, in lesss than eight days. It participated in the Grand Review at Washington and was mustered out, June 8, 1865.

The Twenty-sixth Michigan infantry was organized at Jackson and was mustered in Dec. 12, 1862. It left the State Dec. 13, reported at Washington, was assigned to provost duty at Alexandria, and was thus employed until April, 1863, when it was sent to Suffolk, Virginia, for defense. On June 20 it moved to Yorktown, marched to the Chickahominy, then returned to Yorktown and proceeded to New York to maintain peace in the draft riots. It joined the Army of the Potomac Oct. 13, was attached to the First brigade, First division, Second corps, and came to be recognized as the skirmish regiment of the division. It was engaged at Mine Run and then went into Winter quarters at Stevensburg. It was at the battle of the Wilderness, part of the time in reserve, and charged Stuart's dismounted cavalry on May 7, capturing a number of prisoners and important dispatches. It was in the engagements at Corbin's Bridge, the Ny River, the Po River, and Spottsylvania, where it participated in the charge of the Second corps when the works were carried in a hand-to-hand fight with the bayonet, the colors of the Twenty-sixth being the first planted. It also captured two brass guns and the gunners, its loss being 27 killed, 98 wounded, and 14 missing. It was next engaged at the North Anna, Totopotomy, and Cold Harbor, and was in the assault at Petersburg on June 16, in which the first line was carried. It fought at the Weldon Railroad, was engaged at Deep Bottom, where its brigade drove the enemy and captured four guns, the Twenty-sixth leading in skirmish line. The regiment attacked double its numbers the following day and drove them for half a mile. In August it was engaged at Strawberry Plains, White Oak Swamp, and Reams’ Station, where it assisted in repeated assaults and took part in the charge when the works taken by the enemy were retaken. It remained before Petersburg during the Winter and in March, 1865, charged the enemy's works at Peeble's Fann, capturing a portion of them. It was in action at Hatcher's Run, the Boydton Road, White Oak Road, Sutherland's Station, Amelia Springs, Deatonsville, Sailor’s Creek, High Bridge and Farmville, and was at Appomattox when Lee surrendered, having captured over 400 prisoners between March 28 and April 9, and lost 60 killed and wounded. It was ordered to Washington on May 2, was in the Grand Review, and was mustered out at Bailey's Crossroads, June 4.

The First Engineers was organized at Marshall and was mustered in, Oct. 29, 1861. It left the State, Dec. 17, and reported to General Buell at Louisville. Companies B, E, and I, under Col. William P. Innes, were ordered to report to General McCook, at Munfordville, then moved for Bowling Green, and on the 28th for Nashville. The regiment was ordered to Shiloh in April and built several bridges en route with such rapidity that Buell was enabled to reach the field in time to bring victory out of threatened defeat. It received special mention by Buell. Companies A and K, under Major John B. Yates, left Nashville with General Mitchell’s Division, going to Huntsville, Alabama, and were employed  during May in running trains over the Memphis & Charleston and Nashville & Decatur railroads. The other eight companies moved toward Corinth, building roads and placing siege guns, and in June proceeded toward Decatur, building bridges and trestles, and putting the railroad in running order. In July the entire regiment was Huntsville, actively engaged in track replacing and bridge and trestle work. In August Company E was detached for fortification work at Huntsville. Companies A, B, D, G and H were sent to Nashville and were occupied until the middle of September in bridge building. C, F, K and I were sent to Stevenson and joined the regiment at Gallatin. The entire regiment took up the march for Bowling Green, thence for Louisville. The regiment moved to Nashville and went into camp at Mill Creek, where it built nine bridges. It was ordered to La Vergne, January 1, 1863, and engaged in a skirmish. Its wagon train, in position of a half circle, with hastily constructed breastworks of logs and brush, was attacked by Wheelers cavalry, numbering over 3,000, with a section of artillery, and 315 officers and men fought this force for five hours, repulsing seven assaults, the horsemen charging up to the very breastworks and the enemy's artillery being constantly employed. The enemy drew off at night with a loss of 50 killed and more wounded. By this repulse the rear of the army and most of its baggage train was saved. A correspondent said of it: "The scene was at times thrilling beyond description. The rebel horde dashed their horses against the circular brush fence with infuriated shouts and curses. * * * They were met with staggering volleys. Horses and riders recoiled again and again until they despaired, and soon swept away through the dense forests. * * * Truly, this was one of the most gallant affairs of the campaign." A standard of organization having been established, in 1862 the regiment was allowed twelve companies of 150 men each. From January 1 to June 29, 1863, it was employed in general construction and repair work in the vicinity of La Vergne, Murfreesboro, Smyrna and Nashville, and on October 31 was stationed at Elk Creek. Its excellent work in putting into position greatly needed pontoon bridges at Chattanooga was specially noticed in orders. During the Winter, Spring and Summer, the regiment was constantly employed in building trestle work, bridges, storehouses, block houses and hospitals, in saw-mill work at Chattanooga and Bridgeport, and along the railway lines as far south as Decatur and Stevenson, Alabama. It was ordered to Atlanta, September 25, and in October 148 re-enlisted as veterans, which with the recruits enabled the regiment to maintain its full organization. It was constantly employed on the Atlanta campaign and on the march to Savannah, keeping up with the army, tearing up railroad track, destroying bridges and building raods. On January 26, 1865, it took transports for Beaufort, South Carolina, and joined the march to Goldsboro, North Carolina, during which it destroyed thirty miles of track, built eight or ten bridges and made miles of corduroy road. The regiment moved from Goldsboro to Raleigh and from there to Washington. It participated in the Grand Review and was then ordered to Nashville. It was mustered out, Sept 22, 1865.

The Second Michigan cavalry was organized at Grand Rapids and was mustered in, October 2, 1861. It left the State on Nov. 14, was stationed at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, was engaged in skirmishes at Point Pleasant, Tipton and New Madrid, participated in the siege of Island No. 10, and then moved with Pope's army to Mississippi. It was in the engagements at Pine Hill, Monterey, and Farmington, and the siege of Corinth. Colonel Gordon Granger, who first commanded it, was made brigadier-general and was succeeded by Philip H. Sheridan as colonel, but the latter was not mustered in as such, The regiment was in the engagements at Booneville, Blackland, and Baldwin, in June, 1862, and was in a spirited fight at Booneville, July 1, where 7,000 of Chalmer's cavalry were repulsed by six companies, numbering less than 500 men. This was one of the greatest minor victories of the war. The Second Michigan and Second Iowa cavalry followed the enemy for twenty miles, captured a large amount of arms and clothing. The regiment was engaged at Rienzi, in August, when a largely superior force was defeated and dispersed and many prisoners were captured. Colonel Sheridan was made a brigadier-general and Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald P. Campbell was appointed colonel. The regiment was engaged at the battle of Perryville, Ky., then at Harrodsburg, Lancaster, and the Rockcastle River. In December, 1862, and January, 1863, it was in a raid in Eastern Tennessee, being engaged at Blountville, Zollicoffer, Wartrace, Jonesville, Bacon Creek and Glasgow. In March it was engaged at Gainsville, Spring Hill, Columbia, Hillsboro and Brentwood. The encampment at Columbia was against a much larger force, but two battalions of the Second Michigan cavalry by tremendous efforts saved the wagon trains, which were in charge of the Eighteenth Ohio cavalry. The regiment fought at McGarvick's Ford, in April, and in the Summer was engaged at Triune, Rover, Middletown, Shelbyville, Elk River Ford, and Decherd. It participated at Chickamauga, holding an important point against the enemy and in October was engaged in the pursuit of Wheeler's cavalry, being in action at Anderson's Crossroads. It fought at Sparta, Dandridge and Mossy Creek, in December, and at Dandridge and Pigeon River, in January, 1864. White at Cleveland, Tennessee, 326 men reenlisted as veterans and took a furlough, rejoining the regiment in July. On the Atlanta campaign the regiment fought at Dug Gap, Red Clay, the Etowah River, and Acworth, and joined General Thomas' army in Tennessee. It met and defeated the enemy at Campbellville and Franklin, in September; was engaged at Cypress River in October, when a force four times that of the Union army was defeated; participated at Raccoon Ford, and in November was engaged at Shoal Creek, Lawrenceburg, Campbellville, Columbia, Spring Hill, and the battle of Franklin. In December it was engaged at Nashville, Richland Creek, Pulaski and Sugar Creek, and in 1865 fought at Corinth, Tuscaloosa, Trion, Bridgeville, and Talladega. It was in camp at Macon from May 1 until July 17, detachments being sent to garrison Perry, Thomaston, Barnesville, Forsyth, and Milledgeville. The regiment was mustered out Aug. 17, 1865.

The Third Michigan Cavalry was organized at Grand Rapids and was mustered in Nov. 1, 1861. It left the state Nov. 28, was stationed at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, during the Winter, and then joined Pope's movement against New Madrid and Island No. 10. Captain John K. Mizner took command as colonel on March 31. The regiment was engaged at Farmington, Mississippi, and in the siege of Corinth, then joined Grant's forces in the campaign of Mississippi, and fought at Spangler's Mills, Bay Spring, and Iuka, where it performed efficient work. Five privates captured two officers and a stand of colors. In October it was engaged in the battles of Corinth and the Hatchie River. The remainder of the year it was in actions at Hudsonville, Holley Springs, Lumpkin's Mill, Oxford and Coffeeville. The regiment was engaged at Brownsville in January and Clifton in February. It was in engagements at Jackson and Panola in July, and at Grenada in August, was in the advance, destroying over sixty locomotives and more than 400 cars. In October it participated at Byhalia and Wyatt's Ford on the Tallahatchie River. It was engaged in scouting and numerous expeditions in November and December meeting the enemy at Ripley, Orizaba, Ellistown, Purdy, and Jack's Creek, and on January 1, 1864, went into Winter quarters at LaGrange, Tennessee, where 592 re-enlisted as veterans, received a furlough, and reached home Feb. 7. The regiment was ordered to St. Louis, where it was on provost duty for about two months. It reported at Little Rock, May 24, and was engaged in scouting. It assisted in driving Shelby beyond the river and dispersing guerrillas. In November, 1864, and February, 1865, it garrisoned Brownsville, and in its scouting expeditions collected large droves of cattle, supplying nearly all the beef required for the Department of Arkansas. It was assigned to the First brigade, First division, Seventh army corps, which on March 14 was transferred to the military division of West Mississippi and ordered to Mobile, where it engaged in the siege. After the fall of that point the regiment was employed on outpost duty. On the surrender of the enemy's forces east of the Mississippi, the regiment was selected as escort of Major-General Canby, and received the formal surrender of General Taylor's army. In May the regiment moved to Baton Rouge, La., (Image Below) where it joined the Texas expedition and reached San Antonio on August 2. It was engaged in garrison and escort duty and along the Mexican frontier until mustered out at San Antonio, Feb. 15, 1866.


Image of the occupation and burning of Baton Rouge by the Federal troops


The Fourth Michigan cavalry was organized at Detroit and was mustered in August 29, 1862. It left the state Sept. 20, for Louisville, thence to Tennessee, and was engaged at Stanford, Gallatin, Lebanon, Rural Hill, Baird's Mill, Hollow Tree Gap, Wilson's Creek Road, Franklin, Laurel Hill, Wilson's Creek, La Vergne, Jefferson Pike Bridge, Nashville Pike, Dec. 30, and Stone's River, before the close of the year. The regiment was in successful charges at Stone's River against superior forces. In January and February, 1863, it fought at La Vergne, Manchester Pike, Harpeth River, Cumberland Shoals, Bradyville, Woodbury, Rover, Charlotte, and Auburn, and at Liberty drove Morgan's cavalry for six miles. The regiment was next engaged at Unionville, Thompson's Station, Rutherford Creek, Duck River, Prosperity Church, Liberty, Snow Hill, McMinnville, Statesville, Alexandria, Wartrace, and Middletown. At the last named place it charged and drove the enemy, capturing and destroying a large quantity of ordnance stores and camp equipage, and the standard of the First Alabama cavalry. At Shelbyville it assisted in a charge when 599 prisoners and three pieces of artillery were taken, and the enemy was driven out in confusion, the Union forces being 1,500 and the enemy's over 4,000. A large body was driven into the river, from which over 200 bodies were taken. In the Summer of 1863 the regiment was engaged at Hickory Creek, Tullahoma, Rock Island, Sparta, Sperry's Mill, Smith's Cross-roads, Reed's Bridge, the battle of Chickamauga, Rossville, and Cotton Port. At Chickamauga its brigade, with less than 1,000 men in lint, fought 7,000 from 7 o'clock in the morning until 5 o'clock in the evening, falling back in order for five miles. The regiment was in action at Smith’s Crossroads, Hill Creek, and McMinnville, in October, and was in camp at Maysville from the latter part of October until Nov. 17. It fought at Chattanooga and at Missionary Ridge, and at Cleveland captured 90 wagons, 260 prisoners, 480 mules, and 275 hogs. It burned the railroad bridge at the Etowah River and the depot, iron works and the rolling mill at Cleveland. From January to March, 1864, it took part in the operations about Tunnel Hill and on the Dalton Road, and remained in camp at the Etowah until March 29, when it was ordered to Nashville and attached to the Second cavalry division. In May it defeated a brigade at Farmer's Bridge, fought at Arundel Creek, and was surrounded at Kingston, but cut its way out. On the Atlanta campaign it fought at Dallas, Villa Rica, Lost Mountain, Big Shanty, McAfee's Crossroads, Noonday Creek, and Kennesaw Mountain. At Latimar's Mill on Noonday Creek a force less than 1,000 received the attack of 4,500 of Wheeler's cavalry and fell back, but being reinforced by three regiments the enemy was in turn repulsed. The Fourth Michigan repulsed three charges by two regiments and gained new laurels. It was engaged at Roswell, Lebanon Mills, Stone Mountain, Covington, Flat Rock, in siege of Atlanta, Fair Oaks, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station and McDonotagh. At Jonesboro the entire division was surrounded and Minty's brigade, to which the Fourth was attached, made one of the greatest charges of the war, broke the enclosing lines in superb manner, thus opening a way for Kilpatrick's forces to break from the cordon, and captured three stands of colors. After the fall of Atlanta the regiment was engaged at Roswell, Sweetwater, Nose's Creek, Lost Mountain, New Hope Church, Stilesboro, Rome and Blue Pond. In the latter part of October the regiment was ordered to Nashville, thence to Louisville, where it was newly mounted and quipped. It marched to Gravelly Springs, arriving Jan. 25, 1865, and remained there until early March. Moving south from Eastport, it became engaged at Selma, Alabama, where it joined in the assault and captured the works under terrific fire, Col. Minty being the first to enter alive. The result of this daring affair was the capture of a strongly fortified city, nearly 100 pieces of artillery, 2,700 prisoners and a large amount of ammunition and stores. On May 7 lieutenant-Colonel Pritchard was ordered to proceed with the regiment and picket the Ocmulgee river for the purpose of preventing the escape of Jefferson Davis, who was supposed to be in that section. With 135 men he proceeded to Irwinsville, reaching there about 3 a. m. on the 10th, almost simultaneously with another party under Lieutenant-Colonel Hamden of the First Wisconsin cavalry, and the two exchanged shots in the darkness, each thinking the other party to be some of the enemy. In the encounter some of Pritchard's men surrounded the enemy's camp and captured Mr. and Mrs. Davis and four children; John H. Reagan, the Confederate postmaster general; Colonels Johnson and Lubbock, his aides-de-camp ; Burton N. Harrison, his private secretary; Major Maurand, Captain Moody and Lieutenant Hathaway; Jeff D. Howell, a midshipman in the Confederate navy; 13 private soldiers; Miss Maggie Howell (sister of Mrs. Davis), two waiting maids and several servants. The party proceeded to Macon, from which point Pritchard with escort and train guard conveyed his prisoners to Fortress Monroe. On the 21st the regiment was ordered to Nashville and was mustered out, July 1, 1865.

Image of Culpepper Court House

The Fifth Michigan cavalry was organized at Detroit and was mestered into the United States service, August 30, 1862. It left Detroit December 4, 1862, for Washington D. C. with an enrollment of 1,144 officers and men. Soon after the arrival of the regiment at Washington it was assigned to the Michigan cavalry brigade, composed of the First, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Michigan cavalry, and these regiments served together during the war. In June, 1863, the brigade met the Confederate General. J. E. B. Stuart's cavalry near Hanover, Pa., and drove it back in a spirited charge, afterward dismounting and fighting on foot. In this engagement the Fifth lost severely. On July 3 the regiment, with the brigade, had one of the severest cavalry engagements of the war with Stuart's forces, and won or decisive victory in repelling the enemy's attack, driving him back so he could no longer threaten the rear of the Union lines. The next day the regiment started to intercept General Lee’s army that was in full retreat upon Williamsport. It charged across a bridge on the side of the mountain leading to Williamsport, where the enemy's wagon train was passing, and with the brigade captured 1,500 prisoners and destroyed a large wagon train. A few days later it met the enemy near Boonsboro, where it was dismounted and charged the Confederates, who were behind stone walls, but the charge of the regiment was so impetuous that the enemy was driven in confusion. It took an active part in the engagement at Falling Waters, Md., where the Confederates were put to flight by the gallant charges of the Michigan men. The regiment returned to Virginia after General Lee had crossed the Potomac and in September fought at Culpepper Court House (image above), Raccoon Ford, White's Ford, and Jack's Shop. The regiment was in the fight at James City, and had a severe engagement with the enemy at Buckland Mills, where it first fought on foot and then in a mounted charge drove the enemy pell-mell for two miles. It was in the terrible battle of the Wilderness, on the Brock Road, and also at Haw's Shop, where the regiment was dismounted, as the country was too wooded to successfully maneuver cavalry, and, with the other regiments of the brigade, charged the enemy and a desperate hand-to-hand encounter took place. Two battle flags were captured by the regiment at the Opequan and it did gallant service at Winchester, Luray, Port Republic, Mt. Crawford, Woodstock, Cedar Creek, Newton, and Madison Court House. It was with General Sheridan when the Union forces moved in the direction of Gordonsville and Richmond and drove General Rosser from Louisa Court House, where a large amount of property was destroyed, together with the depot and railroad and aqueducts on the line of the James river canal, seriously interfering with General Lee’s sources of supplies. After the surrender of General Lee the regiment marched to Washington, where it took part in the Grand Review; was then sent to the Far West, and was finally mustered out in Utah.

Image of Gettysburg, Friday July 3, 1863

The Sixth Michigan cavalry was organized in the summer of 1862, under authority of the Secretary of War granted directly to Hon. Francis W. Kellogg, member of Congress from the Congressional district which included Kent County. It comprised twelve troops of a maximum strength of 100 men each, including the proper complement of non-commissioned officers. The rendezvous was Grand Rapids and the regiment was mustered into the United States service, October 11, 1862, with 1229 officers and men. On Dec. 10 it proceeded to Washington, D. C., and went into camp on Meridian hill, where it was brigaded with the Fifth and Seventh and attached to Casey's division of Heintzelman's corps, Department of Washington. The regiment was first under fire at the battle of Hanover, Pa., and to quote General Kilpatrick’s report, it "particularly distinguished" itself at Hunterstown after dark on July 2, where it encountered Wade Hampton's cavalry. On July 3 it was in the famous cavalry fight on the right at Gettysburg (image above), where it supported Pennington's battery. It marched all day, July 4, in a pouring rain and was in the engagement in the mountain pass at Monterey, at midnight. It then fought at Smithfield, Boonsboro, Hagerstown, Williamsport, and Falling Waters, where it attacked the rear-guard of Lee's army, making a charge which Kilpatrick in his official report referred to as "the most gallant ever made," and which a Confederate writer in a Southern paper afterward described as "a charge of dare-devils." The regiment was with Custer in all the cavalry engagements which followed in Virginia; performed conspicuous service at Brandy Station and Buckland Mills; was at Mine Run, Morton's, Raccoon, and Summerville fords, and other minor engagements, after which it went into winter quarters at Stevensburg. On May 6, 1864, the regiment was hotly engaged on the first day of Sheridan's great raid, when 10,000 cavalrymen marched by fours, in a single column; was at Beaver Dam Station, Yellow Tavern, Hanovertown, Haw's Shop, Cold Harbor, Trevilian Station, Meadow Bridge, and many other engagements in the months of May and June. It accompanied Sheridan to the Shenandoah Valley and was in the battles of Winchester, Tom's Brook, Luray, Shepherdstown and Cedar Creek. In the Spring of 1865 it left Winchester with Sheridan and did excellent service in the closing campaign of the war, from Winchester to Appomattox. It marched to Washington, participated in the Grand Review, and was then ordered to Leavenworth, Kan., where it marched 1,100 miles via Fort Kearny, Julesburg, and Fort Laramie, to Powder River, Wyoming Territory. The men who had less than two years to serve were ordered back to the State and were mustered out at Jackson, Mich., in November, 1865. The others were consolidated into a new regiment and sent to Utah, where they were afterward mustered out.

Image of the Battle at Kelley's Ford

The Seventh Michigan cavalry was organized at Grand Rapids in the summer and fall of 1862, being one of the cavalry regiments which the secretary of war authorized the Hon. F. W. Kellogg to recruit at that time. On Jan. 27, 1843, the last contingent of the ten companies was mustered in and on Feb. XI the horses of the first five companies, with a detail of twenty men, proceeded to Washington, followed on the 21st by the horses of the other five companies, and on the 22nd by the main body of the regiment. It reached Washington, Feb. 27, encamped on what was known as Meridian Hill and remained there for about a month. On March 26 it proceeded across the river over Long Bridge and marched to Fairfax Court House, where it was united with the Fifth and Sixth Michigan cavalry into a brigade which was assigned to General Stahel's cavalry division, Department of Washington. From May 3 until June 24, 1863, the regiment was engaged in scout duty and in guar the Orange & Alexandria railroad, which was the line of supplies for the Army of the Potomac, and while thus engaged it had several skirmishes with Mosby's men. In one of these actions near Catlett's Station, where Mosby had destroyed a train of cars, two small brass pieces were captured by the commands engaged, several men of the seventh were injured, and quite a number of prisoners were taken from the enemy. On June 30 it participated in an engagement at Hanover, Pa., where the brigade was united in order to oppose the attempt of General Stuart to effect a junction with General Lee’s army. The first battle flag of the enemy captured by the regiment was taken in this action. On the night of July 2 the regiment was engaged until midnight at Hunterstown, Pa., and on July 3, with others of the brigade, it was at Gettysburg, on the extreme right of the Union army, where it was engaged the entire day. In this engagement, out of the 401 officers and men who went into the fight, the regiment lost 13 killed, 4 officers and 48 men wounded, and 39 missing. On the coming of July 4 it proceeded with the command to follow up Lee's retreating army and on that night, while marching through Monterey Pass, it was met by a volley of canister shot from two pieces of artillery in the road. These guns were promptly charged and taken by the Seventh, and the brigade captured many prisoners and some 400 wagons. The regiment was subsequently engaged at Smithburg, Hagerstown, and Williamsport, and at Falling Waters it captured a 10-pounder Parrott gun from the enemy. After a few days of much needed rest it again crossed the Potomac into Virginia an d participated in engagements at Snicker's Gap, Kelley's Ford (image above), Culpeper Court House, Raccoon Ford, White's Ford, and Jack's Shop. When the Army of the Potomac fell back from the Rapidan the enemy was met by the regiment near James City and on Oct. 10 it participated in a severe engagement at Buckland Mills. After that the enemy fell back toward the Rapidan and was not again encountered by the regiment until in November, at Stevensburg, and Morton's Ford. About daylight on the morning of May 6, 1864, it participated in a lively engagement in the Wilderness, near the intersection of the Furnace and Brock roads, where it was engaged all day. At daylight on the following morning it was again on the same ground, contenting with the enemy until the middle of the afternoon, when he was driven from the field. On May 10 the regiment was engaged all day destroying railroads, and at dawn of the 11th began skirmishing with the enemy. On that day an engagement, at the intersection of the Telegraph and Brock roads, was opened by Stuart and continued all day, the regiment participating in several charges. It had several engagements at Meadow Bridge on the Chickahominy, where it forced a crossing and routed the enemy with a heavy loss. It was again engaged at Darney’s Ferry, and on the same day the regiment made a saber charge at Crump's Creek, driving the enemy for three miles. On the 28th it was engaged at Haw's Shop, the regiment being exposed to a severe fire. On May 30 the Seventh and First Michigan were engaged in a hard fight with the enemy at Old Church, completely routing the Confederates. On May 31 the regiment participated in an engagement at Cold Harbor, and on the morning of June 1 it was attacked by superior forms of the enemy's infantry, but repulsed them with great slaughter. A few days later the regiment was attacked at Louisa Court House by Wickham's brigade of cavalry, but being supported by the First Michigan cavalry it maintained its ground. Thence it marched to Trevilian Station, and there for the greater part of two days it and the other cavalry regiments of Custer’s, Merritt's, and Devin's brigade were engaged in one of the most desperate cavalry combats of the war, against Hampton's and Fitzhugh Lee's commands. In July the regiment engaged the enemy on the New Market road, on the north hank of the James River, where with other cavalry it repulsed a large infantry force of the enemy, and then by a charge captured 250 prisoners and two battle-flags. From Aug. 10 to 16 the regiment was moving about the country in the vicinity of Winchester, several times coming into collision with the enemy. It was in action at Front Royal, charging a whole brigade of Confederate Cavalry, completely routing it and capturing 100 prisoners with a large number of horses and arms. At Berryville, it repulsed a determined attack of the enemy and from that time to the 25th it was engaged in scouting, picketing and light skirmishing. At the Opequan in September the regiment led the advance of the army from about 2 a. m., and after an attempt of the Twenty-fifth New York cavalry had been repulsed, it charged across the river and captured the rifle-pits upon the hills on the opposite bank In the afternoon the enemy fled precipitately, the regiment being engaged until after dark, making many mounted charges during the day and capturing large numbers of prisoners, cannon and small arms. In September it was engaged at Port Republic and remained in that vicinity until Oct. 2, when it had a brush with the enemy at Mt. Crawford. At Tom's Brook the enemy was completely routed in an engagement participated in by the regiment, and was pursued for 26 miles. At the battle of Cedar Creek the regiment captured more prisoners than it had troopers in its ranks, and later it was again engaged with Early's army at the same place. On Dec. 19 the regiment participated in an expedition to Charlottesville and Gordansville to wreck the railroads, and from day to day there was more or less skirmishing and a lively engagement at Liberty Mills on the Rapidan. On March 30, 1865, the regiment found the enemy in force on the White Oak road near Five Forks, and, in column of squadrons with sabers drawn, moved forward in a counter-charge, and soon routed him. On March 31 it had a sharp engagement at the intersection of the Dinwiddie and Five Forks roads, and on April 1 it was again engaged with Pickett's infantry near Five Forks, participating in the battle of that name and taking a prominent part in the final charge, capturing many prisoners and pursuing the enemy until after dark. On April 4 it skirmished with the enemy, made many captures on the way to Amelia Court House and Petersville, and participated in the battle of Sailor’s Creek, in which the whole of Ewell's corps was captured. On April 8 it proceeded to Prospect Station and thence toward Appomattox Depot, where it had a spirited brush with the confederates, capturing much property and ammunition. The regiment was deployed and hotly engaged on the morning of the 9th, but its Spencer carbines soon checked the enemy, and then followed the armistice which resulted in the surrender of Lee's army and the termination of the operations of the regiment in the Civil war. Gerry's South Carolina cavalry failed to keep the armistice, whereupon the Seventh Michigan charged upon it and put a quietus upon it in short order. With the brigade the regiment participated in the Grand Review at Washington and then was included in the assignment to the far West. Those of the regiment whose term of service expired before February, 1866, were mustered out, Dec. 15, 1865, and the others were transferred to the First Michigan veteran cavalry and retained in the service in Utah until March 10, 1866.

Image of General Custer's capture of Jeb Stuart's Confeterate Guns at Culpepper

The Tenth Michigan cavalry was organized at Grand Rapids and was mustered in, Nov. 18, 1863. It left the State, Dec. 1, being ordered to Lexington, Ky., and was engaged at House Mountain, in January, 1864, after which it moved to Burnside Point. On Feb. 29 it moved for Knoxville, thence to Strawberry Plains, and in April met the enemy at Rheatown, Jonesboro, Johnsonville, Watauga, and Bean's Gap. The regiment was also engaged at Powder Spring Gap, Dandridge, Greenville, White Horn, Morristown, Bean's Station, Rogersville, Kingsport, Caney Branch, New Market, William’s Ford,  and Dutch Bottom. It was later engaged at Sevierville, Newport, Morristown, Greenville, Mossy Creek, Bull’s Gap, Blue Springs, Strawberry Plains, Flat Creek Bridge, and Rogersville. At McMillan’s Ford seventy-two men, under Maj. Israel C. Smith, routed 400 Texas cavalry, capturing their commanding officer - a lieutenant colonel - and nearly forty prisoners. The regiment was again engaged at Greeneville, Sevierville and Jonesboro, in September. At Greenville it participated in an action with Morgan’s forces, charging his first camp and routing it and then repelling an advance with carbines. In October and November it was engaged at Johnston's Station, Watauga Bridge, Chucky Bend, Newport, Irish Bottoms, Madisonville, Morristown, and Strawberry Plains, where 700 men in trenches repulsed a force of 5,000. It was engaged at Kingsport, Bristol and Saltville, in December, destroying the salt works at the last named place. It also fought at Chucky Bend, in January, 1865, then encamped at Knoxville until March 21; then moved to upper East Tennessee and joined the raid into North Carolina, during which it destroyed 100 miles of track and several bridges belonging to the Tennessee and Virginia railroad. It made a forced march of 95 mile in twenty-two hours, reaching Henry and engaging the enemy on April 8, defeating a superior force. The regiment was detached at Salem, and Major Smith, with twenty men armed with Spencer repeating rifles, crossed Grant's Creek at Salisbury on log and fired a flank volley which threw the defending forces into confusion. The regiment was also engaged at Statesville and Newton. It was then ordered to Tennessee, where it served until it was mustered out, at Memphis, November 11, 1865.

In the artillery branch of service Kent County was also represented. Battery B of the First light artillery was organized at Grand Rapids and was raised at the same time with the Second cavalry. It was mustered, Nov. 26, 1861. Its first engagement with the enemy was at Pittsburg Landing, April 6, 1862. It made a fine record and was mustered out at Detroit, June 18, 1865. The rendezvous of Battery C was at Grand Rapids, but none of its original officers were from Kent County. It left for the field in the Western Army, December 17, 1861. It had a busy and useful term of service, participated in engagements in most of the Southern States, and was mustered out at Detroit, June 22, l865. Battery K was also organized at Grand Rapids, and was here mustered into the service, February 20, 1863. It was composed chiefly, if not wholly, of volunteers of German descent. It was a gallant and useful corps, and was engaged during the war on duty in fortifications and on gunboats and transports, and saw much hard service. It was mustered out at Detroit, July 12, 1865. The Thirteenth battery, organized at Grand Rapids, went into the United States service, January 28, 1864. The most of its service was in forts and fortifications, in the vicinity of Washington. After the assassination of President Lincoln, it assisted in the arrest of the conspirators, Harold and Mudd. It was mustered out of service, July 1, 1865.

Did space permit, it would be a pleasure to include the names and service of the "men who bore the guns," many of whom performed feats of daring and services of incalculable value to the cause, wholly prompted  by the innate desire for national preservation, and without the hope of official reward. Some even declined promotion on the conscientious ground that they would then be serving for the emoluments and honors of office, while the charge would be groundless if the salary remained at thirteen dollars a month! Such conduct as this, it seems, should be a sufficient refutation of the latter-day doctrine that greed is the only incentive to human exertion. There were representatives of Kent County in nearly every regiment organized in Western Michigan, either by original enlistment, transfer, or promotion, and wherever they were, and by whatever organization they were known, the famous Wolverines always performed their duty, and reflected honor upon themselves and credit upon the noble State which they represented.

The following is a list, approximately correct, of those reported as dead, wounded or captured while in active service in the Civil War:

William Ackerson, Hezekiah Aickly, Richard Alcott, Silas Aldrich, George Ames,  Chandler Andrew, James Andrew, Orlin A. Andrus, Henry L. Arnold, Benjamin A. Austin, Truman J. Bacon, Charles A. Bailey, Jonathan Bailey, Jutson D. Bailey, John Bain, John Baird, Andrew Barbar, Marcus H. ______, George H. Barker, William N. Barnard, George H. Barnes, Burt Barnett, Charles E. Barr, James G. Bateman, Austin Bates, William F. Bates, Ira C. Baxtcr, Theophilus B. Baxter, Henry Beach, Jacob Beasler, Henry P. Beckwith, Christian Behler, Emir A. Bell, Robert Bell, James Bement, Henry A. Bennett, S. Benson, Alonzo S. Berry, Joseph Berry, Amos Bessey, Loren C Bingham, Abraham Bishop, Moses H. Black, James Blackall, Alonzo Blackmore, Rufus W. Bliss, Horam Blood, Theodore Bloomis, Charles Bloss, Seth A. Boynton, L. Byron Brewer, Alvin Briggs, Wm. H. Briggs, Wm. F Brockway, Charles Brownman, Wm. M. Brockway, Albert Brown, Charles H. Brown, James Brown, James Bruce, Robert Bruton, George Bryant, Lorenzo Buckley, Chas. E. Buck, Daniel Bugel, Cyrus W. Bullen, Henry C. Burhams, M. Bullis, Chas. B. Burness, Patrick Burns, Simeon Bush, E. Butler, Edwards Butters, Oscar Bylsma, A. Caldwell, Henry Camp, Isaac Camp, Angus Campbell. James Campbell, Julius O. Campbell, Nicholas Canton, John Cantwell, William L. Caper, Henry W. Carpenter, Septimus Carlton, James Carroll, John Carroll, Job Carter, Jeremiah Cary, Alonzo Case, Noah Casner, A. I. Cathcart, Theodore A. Chapin, Alphonso D. Cheney, Rufus Cheney, George J. S. Chesbro, James Christopherson, Benjamin B. Church, Howard P. Church, Henry Clark, Josiah F. Clark, Julius H. Clark, J. P. CIarke, Amos C. Classon, David Cline, Albert Clute, George W. Cluts, F. M. Coats, P. Coburn, Alexander Cole, James Congdon, Thomas Conger, A. H. Coon, Jesse Coon, George Corporan, Anson B. Corwin, William L. Coughtry, James Cowan, Hugh Cox, David A. Cramer, William H. Cranston, Charles Crauss, Francis M. Crawford, Abraham Cresfield, John F. Crysler, Oliver Culber. George Culver, Harvey S. Curtis. Richard Cusser, Silas W. Cutter, John W. Cuykendall, Hiram Daily, William H. Daniels, Byron J. Dart, Orson O. David, John E. Davis, Thomas A. Davis, William D. Davis, William M. Davis, Frederick Deal, Isaac Dean, Abraham Dees, John L, DeGrot, Eben Delano, David A. Dennison, James Dexter, George Dillenback, Samuel Dodge, Asa Douglass, Daniel Draper, William P. Draper, Edward S. Drew, John P. DuKruif, Emery Durham, Thomas A. Edie, James Eddy, Henry Ellis, James W. Ammons, Milo Ensign, Lyman Evans, John W. Ewing, David A. Farnum, George W. Fay, Henry E. FiIkins, Hiram Filly, Morris E. Fitch, Allen Ford, Alvin R. Ford, John A. Fox, William H. Fox, Isaac Francis, William A. Francisco, John Frederick. John L. Free, Albert Freeman, George W. French, Charles H. Frost, Alvin Fuller, Lucien B. Fullington, Joel W. Gardner, A. H. Garrett, Robert Gilden, Eugene Gillam, Charles B. Gilman, John Gingery, George Girdler, Benj. F. Gitchell, Henry Globe, A. C. Godfroy, Isaac W. Godfroy, Morey Godfroy, Warren D. Godfroy, William P. Gold. Henry L. Gore, Judson A. Gouldsberry, Lafayette Grain, Lebbeus P. Graves, Warner Green, William Green, Martin Greenman, Henry W. Griffin, August Gruths, James Gunigal, Clark Hall, William Halsey, Eli Hamblin, William Hamblin, John Hanna, Henry Hardenburg, William Harger, William C. Harlan, John Harper, Samuel Harrington, Jared V. Harrison, Lewis Hartman, Francis I. Hartwell, George Harwick, Abram V. Hawk, Daniel Hayes, Warren Heald, James Hefferan, Charles Helmer, Elisha Helsel, Ira Helsel, Welcome E. Herrendon, William N. Herrington, Henry H. Hickcox, Frank P. Hildreth, Charles G Hilton, Rufus A. Hilton, William Himmelberger, John Hinkle, Cyrus Hadley, Alpheus Holcomb, Americus Holden, Thomas Hollington, Washington Holmes, Estil W. Holt, Joseph E. Hooper, James Hoose, Martin House, Samuel Hughes, Burdell C. Irons, Charles W. Irons, Judson Irons, Jasper Jacobs, Casper Jenner, Leander Jewell, John Jinks, Edward Johnson, Guy Johnson, Harvey Johnson, Mark Johnson, Richard Johnson, William W. Johnson, Hugh Kearney, Curtis L. Keeney, Francis Kelly, Charles E. Kennedy, John Kennedy, Jon Kennedy, Fred S. Kettle, Henry F. Kimbert, John M. Knapp, William H. Knapp, Webster J. Kniffin, Andrew I. Konkling, Jacob Kugers, Robert H. Lamberton, Abram A Lawyer, Henry Lawyer, John B. Leach, John Leclaire, Robert Lee, Anson Lewis, James Lind, Erastus R. Linsley, John Livingston, Monroe Livingston, Henry C. Lock, Charles H. Louder, Isaac Lovell, Joseph Lozo, Dennis Lynch, John Lynch, John Lynd, George R. Lyon, Berdan McCall, Charles McCarty, Thomas C. McConnel, D. McDcrmott, I. McDonald, Arthur McDougal, Jacob McFall, Jonas McFall, Adam McGarvey, Michael McGrath, John McHough, Ivan Mclain, Stewart J. McLane, Neil McLean, Peter Mclean, Samuel McMurray, Duncan McNaughton, Horace McNitt, Finley McPhearson, Nathan E. Mallory, David A. Marsh, Orville Marsh, Alonzo R. Martin, John W. Marvin, James Mashkum, James Mathews, Anthony D. Matthews, Augustus Mauranski, O. Mayfield, Harvey H. Mead, John Mead, Milton M. Merrifield, Jacob Miers, Abraham Miller, Charles Milk, George W. Miller, Robert W. Miller, James Misner, Thomas V. Mitchell, John Moffit, Samuel Montague, Alfred D. Moore, Benjamin F. Morey, Charles B. Morey, Homer H. Morgan, Mortimer W. Mormon, John M. Morris, Allen Morse, Joseph Morse, Timothy J. Mosher, David Munthorn, John Murony, Michael Murphy, William Murray, Charles Myers, Henry I. Myers, Ira A. Nash, Flavius J. Neal, John Nellis, Henry J. Nesbitt, James W, Newson, Merritt Newton, William Newton, Miner S. Nicholas, David Noble, Otheviah F. Norman, John O'Brien, Elon Oneans, Samuel B. Osgood, Charles F. Page, George W. Parker, George F. Patten, John B. Pearsall, Francis Pelton, Theodore F. Peterson, Reuben Petty, Bennett Phillips, James B. Pierce, Aaron R. Piersons, Auston Pixley, Jacob Plaster, Henry Pool, Fred Porter, Henry B. Potter, John Potter, William W. Potter, Frederick Propardet, Charles E. Provin, James I. Provin, George W. Pyle, Purdy Ramslar, Alfred A. Randall, Lafayette Randall, Almeron D. Rathbun, Edwin Rathbun, Jacob Rectenwald, Henry S. Reed, Luman O. Reed, Joel Rexford, John Rexford, Oliver Rhodes, Samuel L Rice, Charles L. Richards, Francis D. Richardson, Abram Richmire, Charles H. Richmond, Edmond Riordan, Isaac W. Roberts, George Robertson, James Robinson, Ezra J. Rogers, Rennes Rogers, Richard Rolands, Abram Rosel, William R. Roswell, Cady Rowley, Charles A. Russell, Otis H. Russell, Peter Rykert, Thomas A. Sapwell, Dennis Scagel, William F. Schenk, James Sears, Wilson B. Seymour, Hiram Shuman, Alfred Shirk, William Shoemaker, Frank Shoff, William F. Sibley, William S. Simmons, James W. Sims, Major Slater, William I. Slayton, Robert Sleigh, James W. Sligh, George H. Sliter, Joseph T. Sliter, John Smalley, Alfred E. Smith, Amos A. Smith, Charles D. Smith, Chauncey Smith, Daniel Smith, Denton Smith, Denton Smith, Edgar W. Smith, Erson H. Smith, Eugene Smith, George W. Smith, Lucas M. Smith, William Smith, Horace B. Smoke, James H. Soules, Thomas C. Soules, Harrison C. Soules, Warren V. Soules, Cornelius Spaulding, George V. Spearback, Ethan E. Squiers, Samuel C. Squiers, Reuben F. Stanley, Thomas Stanton, Jacob Stark, Cyrus B. Steele, Elisha Steele, H. Stenecca, Richard Sterling, Morris Stevenson, John H. Stewart, Lyman D. Stilwell, George W. Story, Seth Streeter, Henry Strong, James A Taber, Mathew Tancred, Orange Taylor, Allen Thayer, Henry H. Thurston, Samuel T. Tole, George Tower, Dwight Towsley, James B. Treadway, George Trescit, L. C. Truax, Almon H. Tubbs, Lorenzo D. Tubbs, John W. Tyler, William D. Upson, E Vandecan, James Van Dusen, Philip Van Dusen, ______ Van Etten, Cornelius Vanlieu, Benjamin Van Norman, George Van Wie, Henry Wait, George D. Walker, James C. Wallace, Reuben Walters, Henry Ward, Daniel H. Warren, James W. Washburne, Willard Washburne, Stephen Waters, Henry G. Watson, John Webster, Darwin D. Weeks, Charles Wegal, John West, George W. White, Henry White, John White, Norman G. White, Samuel White, Jr., Thomas Whitfield, Solon M. Whitney, William G. Whitworth, Nathan Wilkes, Milo Willard, Daniel M. Williams, George C. Williams, George W. Williams, Nathaniel N. Williams, James F. Wilson, John Wirtz, Joel Wolcott, Lawrence S. Wolcott, Abram Wolf, Jackson Wood, John H. Wood, Selden Wood, William Wood, Albern O. Woodward, Alonzo Worden, W. H. Worden, Andrew C. Wright, Julius M. Wright, Silas A. Yerkes, Jasper I. Younger, Franklin E. Youngs.