Taken from the book; Census of the state of Michigan, 1884, Volume 3
 By Michigan. Dept. of State

Michigan made very slow progress in settlement and population from its discovery up to 1820.
For the purposes of this census a brief review of the early history of the State is pertinent, furnishing, as it does, abundant reasons why it could not have been otherwise.

From its first discovery, about 1610, until 1763, the territory was claimed, or governed by the French.
It was then ceded to Great Britain, and in 1783, at the close of the war of the Revolution, was transferred to the United States.
The British government, in violation of the treaty, retained possession of the military posts of the Territory, and it did not come into actual American possession until July 11, 1796.

It was attached to the Northwest Territory until 1802, when, by act of Congress, that portion west of the east line of Indiana became a part of the Territory of Indiana.
In 1805 the Territory of Michigan was constituted, with the provisions of the Ordinance of 1787 as its fundamental law.
It included "all that part of Indiana Territory which lies north of a line drawn east from the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan, until it shall intersect Lake Erie, and east of a line drawn from the said southerly bend through the middle of said lake to its northern extremity, and thence due north to the northern boundary of the United States."
In 1816 a strip of land equal to thirty townships was taken from the southern portion of the Territory, and became a part of the State of Indiana.
In 1818 Congress increased the area of the Territory, adding all east of the Mississippi river and north of Illinois.
In 1819 authority was given to elect a delegate to Congress.
The limits of the Territory remained unchanged up to 1834, when all the territory north of Missouri and east of the Missouri and White Earth rivers was added to the Territory of Michigan.
It then comprised the area now occupied by the States of Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and a large portion of Dakota.
By the organization of Wisconsin Territory in 1836, and the admission of Michigan into the Union in 1837, the State was reduced to its present area.

MICHIGAN UNDER FRENCH RULE.

French navigators of the lakes skirted the shores of Michigan as early as 1612.
Jesuit missions are said to have been founded in the Upper Peninsula in 1641.
In 1668 Marquette founded a mission at Sault-de-Ste-Marie, and another the same or the next year at Michilimackinac.
This last mission was located on the point now known as St. Ignace.

"The missions at the Sault-de-Ste-Marie and Michilimackinac are regarded as the first completely ascertained settlements within the present State of Michigan.
There is, at least, undeniable evidence when these missions were founded.
Both places were important centers of influence.
But while they may be assumed as the pioneer settlements, until further facts are established, there are some things which deserve reference as indicating a probability to the contrary."

"In 1687, upon a controversy between the Governor General of Canada (Denonville) and Gov. Dongan of New York, the former and his agents asserted a French occupancy at Mackinaw for more than sixty years, and French occupation on the lower waters of Michigan from twenty-five to forty years." (Campbell’s History of Michigan, page 13)

These Jesuit missions were founded to convert the Indians to the Catholic faith.
The trading posts were established to enable the owners to realize the enormous profits in the barter of cheap merchandise for furs.
Neither priest nor trader cared for the permanent settlement and development of the country by the immigration of French farmers.
One sought to sway the Indian by appeals to the better impulses of the heart; the other accepted his habits and customs, and by intermarriage and adoption into tribes acquired great influence.
The methods of both were not favorable to the founding of stable colonies.

In 1701 Cadillac arrived at Detroit with a company of one hundred men, one half of the number artisans or tradesmen.
This, says Judge Campbell, "was the beginning of the settlement of Michigan for purposes of habitation and civil institutions."
The fort or stockade covered but three or four acres of ground, and contained a few houses occupied by the traders and those attached to the fort.
Cadillac had received a small grant of land, afterwards increased, upon which improvements were commenced, but he soon incurred the hostility of both the Jesuits and traders at Mackinaw.
The Indians were enticed from that post to Detroit, injuring alike the work of the priest and the business of the trader.

The French and English war, which commenced soon after the settlement of Detroit, gave renewed activity to its enemies.
The Indians attempted to burn the fort, and again to capture it.
At this time in all Canada there were less than 20,000 whites, and Detroit stood almost alone in favor of settlements for farming purposes and the civilization of the Indian.

The first grant of land is reported to have been made in 1707.
In 1706 Cadillac had brought French wheat for seed.
With the constant danger of Indian hostilities land improvements made slow advances.
Cadillac was made Governor of Louisiana in 1710, and Michigan lost her best friend under French rule.
That his theory, of civilizing the Indians and making them cultivate the land had been carried out, is shown by the fact that in 1718 the Indians near Detroit were reported as harvesting some wheat, and raising corn, beans, peas, squashes, and melons.

There was little progress under new governors.
No attempts were made to secure settlers until a small number arrived from France in 1750.
They prospered, for it was stated in 1759 that the new Detroit settlers had taken care of themselves and been selling wheat since 1754.

In 1721, Charlevoix speaks of the fertility of the soil at Detroit, the same land bearing wheat for years without fertilizers.
Considerable land was cultivated.
The Indians raised and sold provisions in large quantities, and were sharp traders.

Elsewhere there seems to have been no land under cultivation by white settlers.
Mackinaw, as a trading point, was a place of great importance and influence.
The Chevalier de Repentigny had built a fort at Sault-de-Ste-Marie about 1750, on a land grant of six leagues square.
This was the only seigneurie granted except to Cadillac. Under Beauharnois settlements were made by the Indians, on the St. Joseph River, at Muskegon, L’Arbre Croche, and at other points.
Some grants of land were made to French settlers at Detroit.

During the French occupation the English had constantly claimed the title to the territory through the Iroquois, and were engaged in endless intrigues to control the trade.
The Hurons were the natural allies of the French.
The Territory had many tribes, and the Detroit River was the great highway of Indian nations.
The rivers and lakes abounded in fish and the forests with game.

Cadillac, in 1701, had written a full description of the country, in which he says:
"Its borders are so many vast prairies, and the freshness of the waters keeps the banks always green. The prairies are bordered by long and broad rows of fruit trees which have never felt the careful hand of the vigilant gardener. Here, also, orchards, young and old, soften and bend their branches under the weight and quantity of their fruit, toward the mother earth, which has produced them. It is in this land, so fertile, that the ambitious vine, which has never wept under the knife of the vine-dresser, builds a thick roof with its large leaves and heavy clusters, weighing down the top of the tree which receives it, and often stifling it in its embrace. Under these broad walks one sees assembled by hundreds the timid deer and fawn; also the squirrel bounding in his eagerness to collect the apples and plums with which the earth is covered. Here the cautious turkey calls and conducts her numerous brood to gather the grapes, and here also their mates come to fill their large and gluttonous crops. Golden pheasants, the quail, the partridge, woodcock, and numerous doves swarm in the woods and cover the country, which is dotted and broken with thickets and high forests of full grown trees, forming a charming perspective which sweetens the sad lonesomeness of the solitude. The hand of the pitiless reaper has never mown the luxuriant grass upon which fatten woolly buffaloes of magnificent size and proportion.
The fish are here nourished and bathed by living waters of crystal clearness, and their great abundance renders them none the less delicious. Swans are so numerous that one would take for lilies the reeds in which they are crowded together. The gabbling goose, the duck, the widgeon, and the bustard are so abundant that to give an idea of their numbers I must use the expression of a savage, whom I asked before arriving, if there was much game there. ‘So much, he said, that they drew up in lines to let the boats pass through.’"

Elk, moose, wolves, bears, rabbits, otters, beavers, and muskrats were found in every part of the territory.
Strawberries, raspberries, and other small fruits were indigenous.
The sugar maple gave its sweetness to the savage, and the wild bee stored him honey in the monarchs of the forest.
The honeysuckle and the Michigan wild rose filled the forest with sweetness, and along the rivers and lakes sprang the lilies with their countless blossoms.
It was the ideal home of the men of the forest.
Why should they labor when nature spread before them such precious stores?

The squaws cultivated the fields and raised enough corn and vegetables to supply the needs of midwinter.
The exports of corn in 1714 were 2,400 bushels.
Agriculture, however, was greatly neglected, and the conditions on which grants of land were made tended to discourage any intelligent efforts at farming.
In 1757 the product of wheat was reported at 2,500 bushels, and the same amount of oats and corn.
Wheat produced twenty bushels to the acre, and was sown both in the spring and fall.
With this abundance the settlers were more than once on the verge of starvation from the consumption of their supplies by roving bands of Indians.

The country was in a disturbed condition for many years before its surrender to the British.
Through intrigues the Huron’s were by degrees led away from their fidelity to the French, and from 1747 to 1760 the people were kept in an almost constant state of alarm.
During the border wars between the French and English Detroit furnished supplies to French troops in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.
The war resulted disastrously for the French, and New France, so long in their possession, was reluctantly surrendered.
Quebec, the stronghold of their dominion, had opened its gates to the British in 1759, but it was not until September 8, 1760, that Montreal and all Canada came into British possession.
Four days after Major Rogers was ordered to Detroit, his force was stopped by Pontiac on the way.
With the consent of that chief he reached Detroit Nov. 29, 1760.
Another year passed by before British, garrisons occupied the forts at St. Marie, Mackinaw, and St. Joseph.
It was not until February 10, 1763, that by treaty Canada was ceded to Great Britain.

At that time there were about 75,000 whites in all Canada, and possibly two thousand in Michigan.
In 1757 it was stated by Bougainville that there were two hundred habitations, and in 1768 there were 514 1/2 acres of land under cultivation, and 9,789 French bushels of corn produced.
The territory had belonged to France for 150 years, dating from the founding of Quebec, and had been the site of missions for 90 years.
During all these years the colonists had been loyal to France.
It had been at the best only a military despotism, conceding few rights to the people, but they had been brave, docile, patient and true for almost a century.
The Indians had profited by the skill of their neighbors, and could in times of peace raise sufficient food, and their other needs were supplied through the barter of furs.
A hundred years had done less to settle and improve the country than is now often accomplished by some little colony in Dakota during a single year.
It was the end of French rule, and fatal had it proved to all real progress.

MICHIGAN UNDER BRITISH RULE.

The British had possession of Michigan from 1760 until 1796, although by the treaty at the close of the War of the Revolution, it had been ceded to the United States.
Except the little settlement at and about Detroit, there were a few French traders at Mackinaw, and one family at St. Marie.
There was practically no increase of population under British rule.
The change of possession intensified the hostility of the savage.
The French settlers were compelled to submit by the troops which held the forts.
With these troops came Dutch and Scotch traders, who became their most formidable rivals for the limited trade.
The French trader had kept cupidity within bounds so as to retain the good will of the Indian.
Some of the new traders were disposed to deal fairly.
Of others Parkman says, they "were ruffians of the coarsest stamp, who vied with each other in rapacity, violence and profligacy. They cheated, plundered, and cursed the Indians and outraged their families, offering, when compared with the French traders who were under better regulation, a most unfavorable example of the character of their nation."
These men freely supplied the Indians with guns and ammunition, which were soon to be used to plunder and ravage the frontier.
The rule of the French had been arbitrary; it remained the same.
What the settler had quietly endured under his own flag was not readily borne under his nation’s bitterest foe.
Military rule was the only law, and the commander was the sole judge and director of the destinies of the people.

The result can readily be foreseen.
The Indian had been the natural ally of the French, and both were ready to do anything to restore French dominion.
On the western borders of the States to the south settlers were constantly encroaching upon the lands of the Indians.
They looked forward to the time when they would be driven from their hunting grounds to the western wilds.
Presents, which had been liberally made by the French, were entirely withheld by the English, or sparingly dealt out to them.
In the meantime nothing was done to secure an agricultural population.

In 1763 Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, secured a confederation of many tribes, and made a well planned attempt to capture the military posts from Niagara to Chicago.
The attack was to be made simultaneously and British power to be destroyed in a single day.
He personally undertook the capture of Detroit.
The attack followed as planned, and nine of the twelve forts were taken.
Detroit was saved, but Mackinaw was taken, with the massacre of the entire garrison, while only four were brought in as prisoners from St. Joseph.
The preservation of Detroit was due to the timely warning given by an Indian woman, who informed Major Gladwin, commandant of the fort, that Pontiac, with sixty chiefs, would demand a council on the 7th of May, 1763, when they intended, at a given signal, to shoot down the officers, admit their followers, kill all Englishmen, and spare the French.

The attempt failed.
Pontiac found the garrison ready for him and retired.
Various stratagems were laid on following days, all of which failed.
Foiled, Pontiac and his followers made an open attack, which was repulsed with the aid of two armed vessels in the river.
But the post remained in a state of siege until August, when it was relieved by the arrival of General Bradstreet with a large force.
During the winter of 1763, Sir William Johnson, at Niagara, succeeded in effecting reconciliation with several tribes, but Pontiac through 1764-5 remained an obdurate enemy, but finally consented to make peace.

In October, 1763, by royal proclamation, the purchase of any lands not ceded by the Indians to the government was strictly forbidden.
It was not for the interest of Great Britain to foster the colonies so far as to build up manufactures.
They must purchase from the mother country.
With the entire control of the fur trade, cupidity opposed the felling of the forest.
It must be reserved, that the animals whose abundance supplied the trade might not be driven out or destroyed.
The British, like their predecessors, had no ambition or desire to see the country settled and improved.

The military policy of the Pontiac war was so far changed as in a measure to secure the good will of the Indians.
Detroit became the central point, from which war parties were sent out against the tribes still in sympathy with the French.
The Governor-general of Canada had no interest and little knowledge of the colony.
Sir Guy Carleton, who commanded at the commencement of the American Revolution, before the British Parliament in 1774, when asked whether both Detroit and Michigan were under his government replied, "Detroit is not under the government, but Michigan is."

The bulk of the population was French, and so continued until after 1820.
Nothing occurred of importance for twenty years.
A people with nothing to do; a garrison in idleness; a commandant with no interest outside of his military duties; this was the only history.
The colony remained undisturbed through the American Revolution.
It was distinguished as a military centre, and many hostile parties, composed of a small number of regulars, piloted large bodies of Indians to the banks of the Ohio River.
With the commencement of the war, Patrick Sinclair had been appointed Lieutenant Governor at Mackinaw, and Captain Henry Hamilton to the same position at Detroit.
Millions of dollars in supplies were sent to both places for distribution among the Indians, and liberal bounties were paid for scalps.
Among these supplies the tomahawk and scalping knife had a prominent place.
During sixteen months the supplies were immense:
362,460 barrels of flour,
42,176 pounds of fresh beef,
16,473 pounds of salt beef,
19,756 pounds of butter,
203,932 pounds of salt pork,
and 58| tons of gunpowder were among the items received at Detroit.
Of the result of such an order as "sixty gross of scalping knives," Governor Hamilton, in January, 1778, wrote to General Carleton that the Indians had brought in 23 prisoners and 129 scalps.
In another letter of September, 1778, he says, "Since last May the Indians have taken 34 prisoners, 17 of which they delivered up, and 81 scalps."

The attacks on Wyoming, Boonesboro, and other points in Kentucky, and Pennsylvania, were participated in by soldiers and Indians from Detroit.
Daniel Boone was among the prisoners taken and brought to Detroit.
It is estimated that over three thousand persons were scalped or made prisoners by war parties sent from Detroit during the war.
One of these expeditions, under Captain Bird, required $300,000 for an outfit.
It penetrated into Kentucky and brought back the usual quota of scalps.

With the close of the war, by the final treaty of September 3, 1783, the American government understood that the territory south of the great lakes was conceded to them, and that all military posts were to be surrendered within five months.
But no move was made in that direction, nor was any notice sent to commandants of military posts.
President Washington sent Baron Steuben to take possession of Detroit, but Gen. Haldimand, at Quebec, refused him passports, and wrote that no orders had been received to deliver up the posts.
In 1784 another attempt to gain possession was refused.
John Adams, then minister to England, in 1786 made demand for the surrender of the forts, and was refused, on the ground that the States had failed to fulfill stipulations as to debts due to British subjects.
In 1787 the military force was greatly increased at Detroit, two full regiments being stationed there.
Defensive works were erected, and every preparation made to resist a siege.

Thus encouraged the Indians increased in hostility, and many settlers were killed in the Northwest Territory, of which Michigan was a part.
This resulted in sending out troops to subdue them, first under General Harmer, who was defeated, October 22, 1790, with the loss of 600 men.
The scalps of these American soldiers were strung on poles and brought to Detroit.
In 1791, Gen. St. Clair, with 1,400 troops, was defeated on the Wabash River.
Government then attempted to make peace but found that the Indians would not consent to it unless their rights were conceded as extending to the Ohio River.
It was finally determined to send Gen. Wayne with a sufficient force to secure a decisive victory.
Nearly all the military force at Detroit was sent to resist him, on the Miami.
On the 30th of August, 1794, the combined British and Indian forces were defeated in a hard fought battle.

In 1794 John Jay was sent to England to negotiate, and the Jay treaty was ratified by the President in 1795.
It provided that on or before the first day of June, 1796, British garrisons should be withdrawn from all posts and places within the United States.
Under this treaty an American force under Captain Porter took possession of Detroit, July 11, 1796.
A garrison was soon after sent to Mackinaw, and Michigan was at last under the protection of the American flag.
General Wayne and Winthrop Sargent soon after visited Detroit and received a cordial welcome.

MICHIGAN UNDER AMERICAN RULE.

From 1796 to 1805 Michigan was attached to other territories.
On the fifteenth of August, 1796, Secretary Sargent, by proclamation, organized the county of Wayne.
It included the lower, and a large portion of the Upper Peninsula, a large tract across the northern border of the present States of Ohio and Indiana, and a strip along the entire western shore of Lake Michigan, including the present sites of Chicago, Milwaukee, and Green Bay.
In all this territory, over which so many times had swept the tide of war during the previous hundred years, the only land under cultivation was the narrow border extending from the river Raisin to Lake St. Clair.
To this the Indian title had been secured in 1789 by Gov. Arthur St. Clair of the Northwest territory, it being described as "the part of Detroit with a district of land beginning at the mouth of the river Rosine, at the west end of Lake Erie, and running up the southern bank of said river six miles, thence northerly, and always six miles west of the strait, until it strikes the Lake St. Clair."
It also secured the post at Mackinaw, and twelve miles square about it.
The consideration was $6,000.

In 1795 General Wayne, by an Indian treaty made at Greenville, Ohio, secured the same territory in Michigan; also, the islands of Mackinaw and Bois Blanc, and a piece of land on the Straits of Mackinaw to measure six miles in length and three miles back from the straits between Lakes Huron and Michigan.
Twelve tribes were represented by 1,113 Indians - the most prominent being the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese, Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawattomies.

In 1808 Governor Hull secured a tract of land running north from the mouth of Auglaize River until it intersects the latitude of the outlet of Lake Huron, thence northeast to White Rock.
The southern boundary was the Maumee River.
This tract covered the land east of the present meridian line.

By the treaty made at Saginaw in 1819, Gen. Cass obtained in addition the strip "commencing six miles south of the base line on the boundary of 1808 treaty, thence west sixty miles, thence north in a direct line to the head of Thunder Bay river; thence down the same to the mouth."
Gen. Cass, in his report of this acquisition, says:
"A large portion of the country ceded is of the first character for soil and situation; it will vie with any land I have seen north of the Ohio River. The cession probably contains more than six million acres."
The above were the principal cessions of land by the Indians up to the time they were thrown into market as public lands, which was in 1818.

Under the ordinance of 1787 whenever the Northwest Territory had 5,000 free white inhabitants, the people had a right to choose a Legislature who could elect a delegate to Congress.
In 1798 Wayne County sent three delegates to the general assembly at Chilicothe, five hundred free white males being required, for each delegate.
The public expenses were defrayed by the issue of bills of credit.

SLAVES IN MICHIGAN.

The ordinance of 1787 had provided that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted."

Under both French and English rule there had been a few slaves in Michigan.
Some were brought in, but most of them were Indians purchased from the savages who had captured them, and held as household servants.
Under Jay's treaty the right of ownership in both these classes was held to be good.
There is no record to show the number.
So far as the census returns indicate, from 1800 to 1830 there were very few slaves.
None were returned in 1800, when Wayne County was attached to the Territory of Ohio.
In 1810, Wayne County comprised the whole Territory of Michigan, and was divided into four civil districts.
Twenty-four slaves were returned in all, of which seventeen were in the civil district of Detroit, four in Erie, two in Huron, and one in Mackinaw.
In 1820 no slaves were returned.
In 1830 thirty-two slaves were enumerated.
Of these all but one were from territory now forming part of Wisconsin.
One slave was returned from Oakland County, a female between the age of fourteen and twenty-four.
With that census ended the record of slavery in Michigan.

1800 to 1805.

In 1800 the Northwest Territory contained a population of 43,365.
Wayne County, of which part was in the present States of Ohio and Indiana, returned 3,206 inhabitants.
Detroit contained about three hundred houses.
The only cultivated lands were contained in a strip three miles wide, bordering on Detroit River and the lakes, except a few hundred acres about Mackinaw.
More than three-fourths of the total population were French, and Catholics in religion.
Two-thirds were males.
By the admission of Ohio as a State in 1803, and the organization of the Territory of Indiana, Michigan became attached to that Territory.
The union was brief.
Congress organized the Territory of Michigan June 30, 1805.
The Legislature of Ohio had granted a charter for the "Town of Detroit" in 1802.
But there had been no perceptible increase in population during the nine years since the national government had assumed control of the Territory.
Some French families had come in from Canada; others had gone out who preferred British rule.
There was no opportunity to become landholders, while the merchants were sufficient for the trade.

MICHIGAN UNDER GOV. HULL.

President Jefferson appointed General Wm. Hull as Governor of the Territory, and he reached Detroit July 1, 1805.
He was an officer of the Revolution, but at the age of fifty-two was entirely unfitted for the duties required on the western frontier.
Stanley Griswold, from Connecticut, was the first Secretary.
The Judges were Augustus B. Woodward and Frederick Bates, and John Griffin became a Judge in 1806.
Griswold could not agree with Gov. Hull, and Reuben Atwater, of Vermont, succeeded him at the end of three years.

Just before the arrival of Gov. Hull the town of Detroit had been entirely consumed by fire.
The court commenced its sittings under a "bower" erected for that purpose.
A Territorial seal was adopted in 1805.
The first grand jury presented the subject of public lands as requiring immediate attention.

LANDS AND TITLES.

The American State papers furnish voluminous evidence of the great obstacles to the settlement of Michigan from the impossibility of securing legal titles.
Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, had as early as 1790 presented to Congress a plan for the disposition of the public lands.
But nothing had been done in Michigan, and it was in response to this action of the grand jury that President Jefferson, in February, 1804, gave to Congress the report of C. Jouett, Indian agent at Detroit, of the situation of the titles and occupations of lands, private and public.
He made a full report of over four hundred farms.

One hundred and twenty-one farms were located on the river Raisin, 23 on Otter Creek, 16 on Sandy creek, 16 on Ecorce or Bark river, 43 on the river Rouge, 10 on Grosse Isle, 23 on the banks of the Detroit river between the Rouge and Detroit, 60 between Detroit and Grosse Point, 24 from Grosse Point to Lake St. Clair, 30 on Milk River, a branch of the Huron, 34 on the river Huron, 12 at Point O' Tramble, six miles above the mouth of the St. Clair River, and, twelve miles above that point, 25 on the St. Clair River.

It was in 1806, before Congress began the consideration of land titles in Michigan.
Judge Woodward made a report to the Secretary of the Treasury, which was laid before Congress.
He stated that the amount of land in cultivation did not exceed 150,000 acres, or a little more than six townships, while he over-estimated the entire area at 76,000,000 acres, and the quantity of good land at only eighteen to twenty millions of acres.
He describes the farms as from two to four acres front on the river, the houses about twenty-five rods apart; the people, "honest beyond comparison, generous, hospitable, and polished; they seek in the duties of piety, and in the pleasures of sociability, an oblivion of all the cares of ambition and of avarice, as well as of science."

The lands claimed comprised several classes; those made by Governors of Canada and Louisiana and confirmed by the King of France; those made by Governors and not confirmed by the King; those made by military officers, without grant or confirmation, but accompanied by long and undisturbed possession; those with similar titles, and extinguishment of native titles while the territory belonged to Great Britain; and those occupied with extinguishment of native titles since the country came under the control of the United States.

He reported in all 442 farms, with dates of settlement running from 1763 to 1801.
Nearly all of these were French claims, bordering on the rivers, with from two to five acres front and forty acres in depth.
This was a French acre, less than four-fifths of an American acre.
The largest purchase mentioned was that of Patrick Sinclair, on St. Clair River, comprising 4,000 acres, taken in 1765.
Only six of these farms had good titles, as appears from the report made Dec. 1, 1806, by the Register of the Land Office at Detroit.

Thus, after the lapse of one hundred and five years since the settlement of Detroit, there were less than 4,000 acres of land to which there was a valid title.
Commissioners, however, took the claims under consideration, and made full reports to government.
In 1807, Congress passed an act confirming all grantees or heirs prior to July 1, 1796, in their titles, not to exceed 640 acres in each tract.
A subsequent act confirmed the titles of settlers, outside of the vicinity of Detroit, who were in possession in 1812.

By Gov. Hull's treaty with the Indians in 1808, the territory as far west as the principal meridian line, running through the present counties of Hillsdale, Jackson, Ingham, and Shiawassee, to a point near Owosso, and thence northeast to White Rock, on Lake Huron, was secured to the government and ready for survey, but no survey was made, and no lands could be obtained.
These surveys were not made from a constant fear of trouble with the Indians.
Gov. Hull was infirm of purpose, and unpopular with the settlers.
Owing to his representations the town of Detroit was stockaded in 1807, and from that time until after the close of the war in 1815, there was little disposition to clear and settle on lands except within hailing distance of Detroit.

The history of Michigan under the entire administration of Gov. Hull was one of bickerings between the judges.
When they were not at enmity among themselves some of them were in opposition to the Governor.
The whole civil and military power was in their hands; all laws were made and repealed by them.
The Governor and judges in turn were presented before the grand jury.
Each had his friends and sympathizers, who now and then came to blows.

In 1807 and 1808 it was evident that the Indians meant mischief.
They had signed treaties ceding their lands without understanding them.
It was for the interest of the Northwest Company that the country should remain a wilderness.
Their agent at Maiden was giving out guns and ammunition, and the British company distributed their annual presents with a lavish hand.

Under Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, whose home was on the upper Wabash, a union of the tribes was gradually effected.
In 1811 the forces under Gen. Harrison defeated him at Tippecanoe, which secured the peace of that region for a short time.
Gov. Hull was in Washington at the time of this battle to urge the government to take possession of the lakes with armed vessels.
Practically his civil administration then ceased.
War was declared against Great Britain, June 18, 1812.
The news reached the British, at Malden, several days in advance of that furnished to Governor Hull, and resulted in the early fall of Mackinaw, which surrendered August 16, 1812.

By order of the President a regiment of regular troops and twelve hundred Ohio volunteers were placed under the command of Governor Hull.
One of these Ohio regiments was under the command of Lewis Cass, his first appearance in the affairs of Michigan.

It is not the purpose of this sketch to give in full the details of the war of 1812, even as they relate to Michigan.
General Hull, with his forces, arrived at Detroit, July 5, and took possession of the fort, which he disgracefully surrendered, without firing a gun in its defense, August 16, 1812.
It was the surrender of a superior force within fortifications.
The officers and men under Gen. Hull received the surrender with just indignation.
With the fall of Detroit all Michigan passed into the hands of the British.
From August 16, 1812, to September 28, 1813, Detroit was under British control.
Mackinaw was not restored to our government until July 1, 1815.

The Indian atrocities of the war of the Revolution were repeated, and culminated in the Indian massacre at Frenchtown, of which a graphic account is given in Campbell's History of Michigan.
It was the most atrocious act of the war.
Of nine hundred soldiers only fifty escaped capture; more than four hundred were killed, and many others were scalped on their way to Malden.
Testimony submitted by Judge Woodward to Congress proved that many of the dead bodies were literally devoured by dogs and hogs.
The brutal Proctor, the British officer in command at Detroit, refused burial to these men, many of whom, wounded as they were, had been burned alive.
The prisoners who reached Detroit were ransomed by the citizens, the price paid being from ten to eighty dollars.
It was more than five months after the massacre before Proctor took any steps towards the ransom of prisoners, and then only five dollars were offered per man.
Gen. Cass, in an article in the North American Review of April, 1827, conclusively proves that the British Government did not ransom a single prisoner during the entire war.

Not satisfied with allowing the Indians to capture and murder without restraint, Proctor banished the leading citizens of Detroit who had distinguished and impoverished themselves by the ransom of prisoners.
No wonder that the brutality of Proctor called forth the denunciation of Edmund Burke in the British Parliament.
With the victory of Commodore Perry the power of Great Britain in western Canada was broken, and Michigan was safe for the future.

MICHIGAN UNDER LEWIS CASS.

On the surrender of Detroit, Colonel Lewis Cass, with his regiment, had been left in charge of the post.
His appointment soon after as Territorial Governor was the beginning of the future of Michigan.
A native of New Hampshire, he had settled at Marietta, Ohio, at the age of seventeen.
After receiving a liberal education he had become a lawyer, had been a member of the Legislature, and Marshal of the State of Ohio.
He had served with courage and success through the war.
Above all, from habits and training, he was familiar with the needs of the people.
No man in the Northwest was better qualified to deal with the Indian.
Under him the government acquired by various treaties all lands south of Grand River to the headwaters of Thunder Bay River, as well as such as were required to make the posts at Mackinaw and elsewhere safe for the future.
By some of these treaties lands were exchanged for other lands west of the lakes.

MILITARY BOUNTY LANDS.

In 1812 Congress had appropriated two million acres to be selected in the Territory of Michigan as bounty lands to volunteers.
At the close of the war the survey of these lands was ordered.
Edward Tiffin was then Surveyor General, with his office at Chilicothe, Ohio.
A party of surveyors were sent out who commenced in November, 1815, to run a line north, nearly upon the present meridian line.
They pretended to go some fifty miles, sent back several discouraging reports, and, without orders, returned to Chilicothe.
They were undoubtedly in fear of Indian attacks; suffered from cold weather; encountered more difficulties on the line than would have been found either east or west of it; and might have met with other and better inducements to make unfavorable reports.

At the close of the war 68,500 men were reported as entitled to 160 acres of land each, requiring 10,960,000 acres.
Had these first lands been surveyed and selected in Michigan additional bounty lands would have been placed here.

Whether the selection of the lands would have increased the population with greater rapidity is not easy to determine.
It is certainly the fact that up to October 1, 1821, only 71,975 acres of land had been sold in Michigan, while 2,396,160 acres had been surveyed, and the Indian title had been extinguished to 10,399,360 acres.
In the same year, and at a date six months earlier, bounty warrants had issued for 967,500 acres, changed by Congress from Michigan to Illinois.
The cause that led to this change came about through the following letter of Tiffin:

Surveyor General's Office,
Chilicothe, Nov. 30, 1815.
"The surveyors who went to survey the military land in Michigan territory have been obliged to suspend their operations until the country shall be sufficiently frozen so as to bear man and beast.  Knowing the desire of the government to have the lands surveyed as soon as practicable, and my earnest importunities to urge the work forward, they continued at work, suffering incredible hardships, until both men and beasts were literally worn down with extreme sufferings and fatigue.
The frost set in early, and the ice covered nearly the whole country, but broke through at every step, and the pack horses could not be got along with them.
They were, therefore, obliged to submit to the climate and its attendant rigors, and desist for awhile, intending to attack them again so soon as they it possible to proceed."
I annex a description of the country which has been sent to me, and which I am informed all the surveyors concur in; it was only yesterday I received it and heard of their return.
So soon as their health and strength is recruited I expect to see them all, only one of them having been here yet.
In the meantime I think it my duty to give you the information, believing that it is the wish of the government that the soldiers should have (as the act of Congress expresses) lands fit for cultivation, and that the whole of the two millions of acres appropriated in the territory of Michigan will not contain anything like one-hundredth part of that quantity or is worth the expense of surveying it.
Perhaps you may think with me that it will be proper to make this representation to the President of the United States, and he may arrest all further proceedings by directing me to pay off what has been done and abandon the country.
Congress being in session, other lands could be appropriated in lieu of these and might be surveyed as soon as those in Michigan; for when the ice is sufficiently strong to bear man and beast a deep snow would still embarrass the surveyors.
I shall, therefore, wait to hear your answer to this communication before I proceed any further, thinking I should be unfaithful to my trust if I had lost any time in communicating the information received."

Description of the Military Lands in Michigan Territory.

"The country on the Indian boundary line, from the mouth of the great Auglaize river, and running thence for about fifty miles, is (with some few exceptions) low, wet land, with a thick growth of underbrush, intermixed with very bad marshes, but generally very heavily timbered with beech, cottonwood, oak, etc.; from thence, continuing north, and extending from the Indian boundary line eastward, the number and extent of the swamps increases, with the addition of numbers of lakes from twenty chains to two and three miles across.
Many of the lakes have extensive marshes adjoining their margins, sometimes thickly covered with a species of pine called "tamirak," and other places covered with a coarse, high grass, and uniformly covered from six inches to three feet (and more at times) with water.
The margins of the lakes are not the only places where swamps are found, for they are interspersed throughout the whole country, and filled with water as above stated, and varying in extent.
The intermediate space between the swamps and lakes, which is probably near one-half of the country, is, with a very [few] exceptions, a poor, barren, sandy land, on which scarcely any vegetation grows except very small, scrubby oaks.
In many places that part which may be called dry land is composed of little short sand hills, forming a kind of deep basin, the bottom of many of which are composed of a marsh similar to those above described.
The streams are generally narrow, and very deep compared with their width, the shores and bottoms of which are (with a very few exceptions) swampy beyond description, and it is with the utmost difficulty that a place can be found over which horses can be conveyed.
A circumstance peculiar to that country is exhibited in many of the marshes by their being thinly covered with a sward of grass, by walking on which evinced the existence of water or a very thin mud immediately under that thin covering, which sinks from six to eighteen inches from the pressure of the foot at every step and at the same time rising before and behind the person passing over.
The margins of many of the lakes and streams are in a similar situation, and in many places are literally afloat.
On approaching the eastern part of the military lands, towards the private claims in the straits and lakes, the country does not contain so many swamps and lakes, but the extreme sterility and barrenness of the soil continues the same.
Taking the country altogether, so far as has been explored, and to all appearance, together with the information received concurring, the balance is as bad, there would not be more than one acre out of a hundred, if there would be one out of a thousand, that would, in any case, admit of cultivation.
"With great respect, I am your obedient servant,

Edward Tiffin.
"The Hon. Josiah Meigs, Commissioner General Land Office, Washington."

Tiffin writes again to the Commissioner, under date of Dec. 11, 1815: "I am very anxious to hear from you since my representation of Michigan went on. Subsequent accounts confirm the statements, and make the country out worse (if possible) than I had represented it to be."

William H. Crawford, Secretary of War, under date of January 22, 1816, wrote to Commissioner Meigs, asking him to designate a tract of land from which these military bounty lands could be selected, and that officer recommended two millions of acres from the Illinois cession.
February 6, 1816, President Madison, by special message to congress, asked the designation of other lands, as the lands in Michigan Territory "are so covered with swamps and lakes, or otherwise unfit for cultivation, that a very inconsiderable proportion can be applied to the intended grants."

The change was made by congress, as requested.
Michigan had no newspaper to meet the charges, while this opinion of Michigan had a wide circulation through the press of the eastern States.

At this time both the Land and Indian offices were connected with the War Department.
Indian Agent Jouett had made a favorable report in 1803, of Michigan lands.
There was on file a complete contradiction of the statements of Tiffin.
Jouett said of the lands on the river Raisin: "An excellent soil, producing twenty-five to thirty bushels to the acre of wheat, or other grain in the same proportion.
Their orchards are yet young, but promise in a few years to be very productive."
Of the settlements on the Ecorce, "The country is level, the soil rich, and sufficiently dry for any kind of cultivation.
The grass and wheat are astonishingly luxuriant, and nature requires to be but little aided to produce in abundance all the necessaries of life." Of farms on Lake St. Clair, "The soil is dark, rich and strong, and extremely favorable to the production of wheat."
This report was full, explicit, and in direct contradiction to that of Tiffin.
But, whatever the result might have been had these military bounty lands been selected in Michigan, it is certain that these reports of Tiffin, and the action of congress, placed Michigan in a bad light in the East.
This prejudice remained and in some quarters is not yet extinguished.
To go to Michigan was to take leave of civilization and court an early death.
For nearly three years it stopped all surveys of lands.
It was only in 1818, more than two hundred years from the discovery of the Territory, and one hundred and seventeen years from the first settlement of Detroit, that the first acre of Michigan lands was offered for public sale.
In the same year the first trip by steamer was made from Buffalo to Detroit.
Within three years after more lands were sold than all that had been improved in the previous history of the Territory.
In 1820 the minimum price of lands was reduced to one dollar and a quarter per acre.
But it was not until 1830 that settlers had the pre-emption right to lands.

In 1818 the people refused to advance a grade in government and elect their own Legislators.
The French were opposed to it, as it would have entailed an expense they did not feel able to bear.
But in 1819 congress allowed the Territory a delegate in congress, and William Woodbridge, afterwards United States Senator, was elected.

The tide of emigration had commenced, and the census of 1820 proved that the population, which had remained almost stationary for half a century, had doubled since 1810.
But the real advance commenced when the Erie Canal was opened in 1825 and emigrants could reach Michigan by water from Albany.
With the opening of lands to public sale came a demand for township and county organizations, of which Governor Cass was a warm advocate.
Under the organic law this power was exercised by him.
Wayne was the only county from 1796 to 1817.
Monroe county was organized July 14, 1817; Macomb, January 15, 1818; and Michilimackinac, October 26, 1818.
On the same day Brown and Crawford Counties were organized, comprising the territory now in the State of Wisconsin.
Oakland county was organized January 12, 1819, and St. Clair county in 1820.
The counties of Lapeer, Sanilac, Saginaw, Shiawassee, Washtenaw, and Lenawee were laid out in 1822.
The first township organization was that of Detroit in 1802.
Mackinaw Island was organized as a township in 1817, and Monguagon, Wayne County, in 1818.
In 1824 the government passed from the first to the second grade.
Up to that year the people had no power.
It was all vested in the Governor and Judges.
They now elected eighteen persons, from which the President selected nine, to act as the Legislative Council.
The first Council assembled in Detroit.
In the first message of Governor Cass, of June 7, 1824, a full review was given of the previous history of Michigan.
The reasons for its slow growth and settlement are fully set forth.
He says:
"To those whose knowledge of the history of this country is confined to the early date of its final settlement, and who are ignorant of the series of adverse events which have checked its growth, it is matter of surprise that our population is yet so weak.
But it should be recollected that under the French and British governments this was a remote portion of a remote colony, originally settled by adventurers in the fur trade.
Agriculture and those arts which minister to it were neglected for a traffic of doubtful advantage.
Although secured to the United States by the treaty of peace of 1783, still possession was not obtained till 1796.
It then became a part of the immense Territorial Government northwest of the Ohio, but separated from the local seat of that government and from its principal offices by an extensive wilderness, in possession of its aboriginal inhabitants.
It thus continued, with no identity of interest, and but little intercourse with the seat of Territorial power, until 1803, when the State of Ohio was formed.
This country was then attached to the Territory of Indiana, from whose government and people it was still more remote.
In 1805 this Territorial Government was organized, but the commencement of its operations was marked by a signal calamity.
The town of Detroit, the mart of business, and in fact the only place of any importance, was utterly destroyed by one of the most awful conflagrations which has ever visited any section of the Union."

"About this period commenced a series of legislative measures on the part of the general -government, for the examination and adjustment of land claims in the Territory.
Not more than six tracts were held by legal titles; a striking proof of the little importance attached to this colony by both the parent countries.
The tenure of lands depended upon improvement and possession, and the initiatory grants were made by subordinate officers.
In many instances farms had thus descended in the families of the occupants for several generations.
It became equally important to the people and to the future prosperity of the country, that these claims should be examined, and that all equitable interests, founded upon possession and improvement, should be confirmed by legal grants to the occupants.
The wise and liberal policy of the general government led to the adoption of this measure, but its final execution was delayed by difficulties incident to the determination of such a complicated subject, until 1812."

"In 1807, that feverish excitement became visible among the Indians which terminated in open hostilities at the battle of Tippecanoe. During its progress and development, this frontier was subject to frequent alarms, and furnished no attraction for the peaceable and industrious emigrant, which could counterbalance the danger of an Indian war.
The disastrous effects of the last war upon this Territory are recorded in the history of our country. The whole population was prostrated at the feet of relentless savages, and with such atrocious circumstances as have no parallel in the annals of modern warfare.
Menaces, personal violence, imprisonment and deportation were indiscriminately used, as either appeared best calculated to effect the object; which avowedly was to sever our citizens from the allegiance they owed their country. Fortunately their patriotism and energy resisted these efforts, and probably in no portion of the union was more devotedness to the general cause manifested than here.
This state of calamitous expense was terminated by the treaty of peace; but it was not till 1818 that any of the public lands were brought to market. From this period we may date the actual commencement of the settlement of the Territory. Prior to it these lands could not be purchased, and our fellow citizens in the older sections of the republic could have no motive to remove to a country, of which the National Government was, under such unfavorable circumstances, almost the only proprietor."

He might have well added to the above that from 1812 up to 1820 the cost of living was higher at Detroit than elsewhere in the Union.
This was largely due to the fact that it was the central point for all the Indians of the Northwest.
In a letter written to the War Department in 1821, Governor Cass says of the Indians, that his “family is driven from one extremity of the house to the other by them."
It was estimated that four hundred Indians arrived at Detroit daily.
They had to be fed and clothed.
From 1813 Governor Cass had been ex officio superintendent of the Indian agency at Detroit, but also had under his control and reporting to him the agencies at Mackinaw, Green Bay, Chicago, Fort Wayne, Piqna, and the sub-agencies at Upper Sandusky and Blanchard's Fork.
In the Detroit agency alone there were 8,000 Indians.
The Indians from all these agencies took in Detroit at least once a year.
During eight years he had disbursed over $400,000 among them, procured at banks in Ohio and brought at his own risk to Detroit.
The risk was in transportation through an unsettled wilderness, and the danger of the failure of the banks upon which he drew before he could use the money.
In that case the loss would have fallen upon him.

Colonel Hunt writes to the Secretary of War, October 21, 1821, that Detroit, since the war, had been "the dearest place in the United States.”
The average price of flour has been twelve dollars a barrel, pork thirty-five dollars a barrel, whisky two dollars per gallon, butter fifty cents per pound by the firkin, eggs fifty cents per dozen by the average, and frequently a dollar a dozen has been paid for them; three dollars for a turkey, wine eight dollars per gallon, corn two dollars per bushel, I have paid that price for 500 bushels at a time; oats 75 cents per bushel, hay thirty dollars per ton, loaf sugar 50 cents per pound, coffee 62 ½ cents per pound, hyson tea three dollars per pound, and every other article in proportion.
The contract price of wood was, upon the average, five and a half dollars per cord."

Gen. Macomb, in a letter of October 6, 1821, says that he has often had to detail a guard of soldiers to protect the family of Governor Cass from the importunities of the Indians.
He alludes to the controlling power exercised by Cass over all the tribes. 
"To bring about this happy and good understanding many feasts were given to the chiefs, and presents to their wives and children, from the hands of the Governor and his family," all of which entailed great expense.
For all this labor and expense as Indian agent Governor Cass had received no compensation during all these years.
He finally received $1,500 a year and ten rations per day, computed at twenty cents per ration.

From 1821 to 1825 the sales of land had exceeded 220,000 acres, and on the 30th of June, 1827, the total lands sold were 373,000 acres.
Within six years more than six times the land had been sold and settled upon than in the entire previous history of the Territory.
There was no longer a doubt of the future.
The era of prosperity had commenced which would soon bring Michigan into the Union.

In 1821 all the territory west of that ceded by the Indians in 1819, and as far north as Grand River, was obtained by treaty.
This gave full one-half of the Lower Peninsula to the government.
The remainder of the Lower Peninsula, and so much of the Upper Peninsula as lies east of the Chocolate River was not obtained until 1836.
In 1825 the Legislative Council was increased from nine to thirteen members, to be selected from twenty-six by the President.
In January, 1827, Congress allowed the people of the Territory to elect thirteen members who were to form the council, without the sanction of the President.

FROM 1830 TO 1837.

The United States census of 1830 gave the Territory a population of 31,639, while in 1820 it was only 8,896.
Emigrants came in like a flood.
The counties of Hillsdale, Branch, Berrien, Cass, Jackson, Calhoun, Van Buren, St. Joseph, Ingham and Eaton had been laid out prior to this census, and some of them organized.
In 1831 Governor Cass was called to the cabinet of President Jackson, and resigned the position of Governor which he had so ably filled for eighteen years.
The people began to talk of the coming State.
The emigration to the Territory every year from 1830 to 1836 probably exceeded the total population in 1830.

The Black Hawk war, which broke out in 1832, and the cholera, which committed such fearful ravages from 1832 to 1834, delayed any attempt to form a State constitution.
A census was ordered in 1834 which gave a population of 87,273 white inhabitants.
Under the ordinance of 1787 Michigan was entitled to admission as a State when it numbered 60,000 free white inhabitants.

The Legislative Council, by an act passed January 26, 1835, authorized the people to elect on the coming 4th of April eighty-nine delegates who were to meet in Detroit on the second Monday of May, 1835.
This convention adopted a State constitution and adjourned on the 24th of June.
This constitution was adopted by the people, and State officers were elected on the first Monday of October, 1835.

As provided in the State constitution, the first Legislature met on the first Monday of November, 1835.
On the tenth of November, Lucius Lyon and John Norvell were elected United States Senators.
After a short session, the Legislature adjourned until the first Monday of February, 1836, hoping that before that time Congress would admit the State into the Union.
In this they were disappointed.
It was not until June 15, 1836, that the bill passed Congress admitting the States of Arkansas and Michigan, but with the proviso that Michigan was not to be received unless it accepted the northern boundary of Ohio, as fixed by Congress.
As a compensation for this loss of territory on the southern boundary Michigan was to receive territory in the Upper Peninsula, as far west as the Montreal River.
On July 20, 1836, at a second adjourned session of the Legislature, the election of delegates to meet in convention was provided for to settle the question of admission.

This Convention met September 26, 1836, at Ann Arbor, and was composed of fifty delegates, of whom twenty-nine were from the counties of Wayne, Monroe, Lenawee, Oakland, Washtenaw and Livingston.
They rejected the terms of admission proposed by Congress.
The Democratic county committee of Wayne County issued a circular recommending another convention to be held at Ann Arbor, December 14, 1836.
This convention was held, but there were no delegates from Monroe County.
It accepted the prescribed conditions of admission, the validity of its action was recognized by Congress, and by an act approved January 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted as the twenty-sixth State of the Union.

This brief history of Michigan, prior to its admission as a State, carries out the purpose contemplated.
It seems eminently proper that the people, who are so proud of the State in this day of wealth, prosperity and progress, should review the early history of Michigan, and better understand some of the many obstacles that so long delayed the coming of the hardy pioneer.

RANK OF MICHIGAN AMONG THE STATES.

Through the census of 1880 alone can the standing of Michigan be compared with that of other States in the Union.
It is an instructive and interesting feature of the census work, giving more correctly, than can be obtained from any other source, the ratio of progress in population, wealth, productions, manufacturing, and mining interests.

The following table gives the exact rank of the State as to other States, as well as the figures of 1880 with which to compare those of 1884:


Area in square miles, 58,915 - Rank 11

Area of land surface, 57,430 - Rank 11

Area of water surface, 1,485 - Rank 12

Population, 1,636,937 - Rank 9

Increase of population from 1870, 38.2 per cent - Rank 13

Density of population, 28.5 per square mile - Rank 17

Male population, 862,355 - Rank 7

Female population, 774,582 - Rank 12

Native-born population, 1,248,429 - Rank 16

White native-born population, 1,228,127 - Rank 10

Foreign-born population, 388,508 – Rank 7

White population, 1,614,560 - Rank 9

Colored population, 15,100 - Rank 26

Indian population, 7,240 - Rank 3

Chinese population, 27 - Rank 22

Austrian born population, 1,025 - Rank 13

Belgium born population, 979 - Rank 5

Bohemian born population, 1,789 - Rank 11

British American born population, 148,866 - Rank 1

Danish born population, 3,513 - Rank 7

French born population, 3,203 - Rank 10

German born population, 89,085 - Rank 7

English born population, 43,202 - Rank 5

Irish born population, 43,413 - Rank 11

Scotch born population, 10,731 - Rank 5

Welsh born population, 830 - Rank 14

Holland born population, 17,177 - Rank 1

Italian born population, 505 - Rank 12

Norwegian born population, 3,520 - Rank 5

Hungarian born population, 193 - Rank 12

Polish born population, 5,421 - Rank 3

Russian born population,1,560 - Rank 5

Swedish born population, 9,412 – Rank 7

Swiss born population, 2,474 - Rank 13

National militia, (males between 18 and 45), 371,140 - Rank 8

Males of voting age, (21 and over), 467,687 - Rank 8

White males 21 years of age, 461,557 - Rank 8

Native white males 21 years of age, 285.409 - Rank 10

Teachers in schools, 8,608 - Rank 8

Male teachers in schools, 2,496 - Rank 16

Female teachers in schools, 6,098 - Rank 8

Pupils attending schools, 362,459 - Rank 8

Average daily attendance at schools, 263.775 - Rank 6

Number of school-houses, 6,412 - Rank 8

Number of sittings in schools, 446,310 - Rank 5

Value of school property, $8,982,344 - Rank 8

Outlay for school purposes, $3,112,468 - Rank 8

Persons over 10 years of age, 1,236,686 - Rank 8

Persons over 10 unable to read, 47,112 - Rank 7

Persons over 10 unable to write, 63,723 - Rank 5

Male persons over 10 years of age, 659,101 - Rank 8

Female persons over 10 years of age, 577,585 - Rank 8

Total engaged in occupations, 569,204 - Rank 8

Male persons engaged in occupations, 514,191 - Rank 8

Female persons engaged in occupations, 55,013 - Rank 18

Total engaged in agricultural occupations, 240,319 - Rank 17

Male persons engaged in agricultural occupations, 239,346 - Rank 16

Female persons engaged in agricultural occupations, 973 - Rank 22

Total engaged in professional and personal services, 143,249 - Rank 8

Male persons engaged in professional and personal services, 103,244 - Rank 5

Female persons engaged in professional and personal services, 40,005 - Rank 10

Persons engaged in trade and transportation, 54,723 - Rank 9

Males engaged in trade and transportation, 53,217 - 9

Females engaged in trade and transportation, 1,406 - Rank 9

Persons engaged in manufactories, and mechanical and mining industries, 130,913 - Rank 7

Males engaged in manufactories, and mechanical and mining industries,

118,284 - Rank 7

Females engaged in manufactories, and mechanical and mining industries, 12,629 - Rank 12

Males, 10 to 15, engaged in occupations, 11,610 - Rank 21

Females, 10 to 15, engaged in occupations, 3,479 - Rank 22

Males, 16 to 59, engaged in occupations, 470,903 - Rank 8

Females, 16 to 59, engaged in occupations, 50,725 - Rank 16

Males 60 and over engaged in occupations, 31,678 - Rank 9

Females 60 and over engaged in occupations, 809 - Rank 22

Number of agricultural laborers, 70,845 - Rank 19

Number of farmers, 167,141 - Rank 10

Clerks, salesmen and accountants, 12,580 - Rank 8

Number of families, 336,973 - Rank 8

Average number in a family, 4.86 - Rank 30

Persons to a square mile, 28.50 - Rank 21

Families to a square mile, 5.87 - Rank 19

Dwellings to a square mile, 5.60 - Rank 18

Number of dwellings, 321,514 - Rank 7

Persons to a dwelling, 5.09 - Rank 34

Acres to a person, 22.45 - Rank 18

Acres to a family, 109.07 - Rank 21

Gross value of farms, $499,103,181 - Rank 7

Value of live stock on farms, $55,720,113 - Rank 10

Value of farm implements and machinery, $19,419,360 - Rank 7

Value of productions, $91,159,858 - Rank 8

Number of pounds of butter made, 38,821,890 - Rank 6

Number of pounds of wool, 11,858,497 - Rank 3

Grain of all kinds—bushels, 88,097,084 - Rank 11

Bushels of corn, 32,461,452 - Rank 12

Bushels of wheat, 35,532,543 - Rank 4

Bushels of oats, 18,190,793 - Rank 9

Bushels of barley, 1,204,316 - Rank 9

Bushels of rye, 294,918 - Rank 15

Bushels of buckwheat, 413,062 - Rank 4

Bushels of Irish potatoes, 10,924,111 - Rank 4

Pounds of hops, 266,010 - Rank 4

Horses, 378,778 - Rank 10

Working oxen, 40,393 - Rank 9

Milk cows, 384,578 - Rank 11

Other cattle, 466,660 - Rank 13

Sheep, 2,189,389 - Rank 4

Swine, 964,071 - Rank 18

Acres of improved land, 8,304,028 - Rank 15

Number of farms, 154,008 - Rank 11

Farms of 20 and under 50 acres, 45,029 - Rank 3

Farms of 50 and under 100 acres, 55,777 - Rank 8

Farms of 20 and under 50 acres occupied by owners, 41,286 - Rank 1

Farms of 50 and under 100 acres occupied by owners, 50,365 - Rank 4

Valuation of real estate, $432,861,884 - Rank 9

Valuation of personal estate, $84,804,475 - Rank 17

Beal and personal estate, $517,666,359 - Rank 10

Total State taxation, $1,683,560 - Rank 8

Total county taxation, $1,804,512 - Rank 12

Taxation of civil divisions less than counties, $5,139,877 - Rank 10

Total taxation, $8,627,949 - Rank 11

Number of manufacturing establishments, 8,873 - Rank 7

Capital employed, $92,930,959 - Rank 8

Wages paid to employees, $25,318,682 - Rank 8

Value of raw materials, $92,852,969 - Rank 10

Value of product, $150,692,025 - Rank 9

Value of copper mined, $7,979,232 - Rank 1

Amount ingots of copper, 45,830,262 - Rank 1

Value iron ore raised, $6,034,648 - Rank 1

Number tons iron ore, 1,837,712 - Rank 1

Total value of non-precious minerals, $14,279,437 - Rank 2

Number of bushels of salt made, 12,425,885 - Rank 1

Value of same, $2,271,913 - Rank 1

Value of lumber, $52,449,928 - Rank 1

Steam and water-power employed in manufactories, number of horsepower, 164,747 - Rank 5

Annual mortality - Rank 7

Number of daily newspapers, 33 – Rank 9

Average daily circulation, 62,839 - Rank 9

COMPARATIVE DEDUCTIONS.

There are many striking comparative deductions to be made from the foregoing table in favor of Michigan.
The first, perhaps of all, is that it is the first "State for small farms from 20 to 50 acres.
In the actual number it is exceeded by Illinois and Ohio.
But the total number of farms in each of those States greatly exceeds those of Michigan, Illinois having 255,741 and Ohio 247,189; so that, in proportion to the whole number, Michigan stands first in these farms, and, of those occupied by owners, is numerically first.
Of farms from 50 to 100 acres Michigan is eighth, in those occupied by owners fourth, being outnumbered in New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio.
As to farms from 20 to 100 acres, she holds the first rank, in proportion to population, of any State.
In male population she ranks seventh, leading Massachusetts and Kentucky, with a greater population.

FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION

In foreign-born population Michigan has more than Missouri and Kentucky, each with greater population.
Of this element Michigan has more from British America and Holland than any other State.
The immigrants from British America numbered 148,866.
In Massachusetts there were 119,302, and in New York 84,182.
In no other State or Territory did it reach 38,000.
Of Hollanders Michigan has 17,177, and the next largest number was in New York, 8,399.
Only the States of Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania have a larger English or Scotch population.
Illinois and New York only have a larger Polish population.
Four States, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Minnesota, have a larger Norwegian population.
Only six States, New York, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Missouri, have more Germans than Michigan.
The States with a larger foreign population are New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Ohio.
The Canadian population alone is more than one-third of the entire foreign population, its excess being largely due to the lumber interest.

INSANE, IDIOTIC, BLIND AND DEAF

In 1880 Michigan reported 2,796 insane, 2,180 idiots, 1,289 blind, and 1,166 dumb.

Of insane there were more in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Massachusetts, Indiana, and Wisconsin.
There were 12 less in Kentucky.
Of idiots, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Iowa, North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and Texas had more than Michigan, and Massachusetts had less; while of blind all these States had more than Michigan.
Of deaf mutes seven States had more than Michigan, Massachusetts, with a larger population, having less.

EDUCATION.

Michigan is the eighth State in rank in schools, teachers, and pupils.
The rank is sixth in pupils attending schools, and fifth in the number of school sittings.

Of persons over 10, unable to read, there were 47,112.
The States ranking above Michigan, in their order, were Iowa, Nebraska, Maine, Ohio, Kansas and Minnesota.
Of persons over 10, unable to write, Michigan had 58,932, being outranked by the States of Nebraska, Iowa, Maine, and New Hampshire.

Michigan stands high as a healthy State.
Only six States had fewer deaths in proportion to their population, being, in their order, Oregon, Minnesota, Nevada, Florida, Iowa, and West Virginia.
Michigan has held the same rank for forty years.

The total number of newspapers and periodicals in Michigan in 1880 was 464.
Michigan ranked eighth among the States.
The States above her in rank were New York, with 1,411; Illinois, 1,017; Pennsylvania, 973; Ohio, 774; Iowa, 569; Missouri, 520; Indiana, 467.
Of these States Iowa had less population than Michigan, Massachusetts with 427, and Kentucky with 205, had each a larger population than Michigan.

In this State there were 33 dailies, 397 weeklies, 3 semi-weeklies, 2 biweeklies, 19 monthlies, 4 semi-monthlies, 1 bi-monthly, 1 quarterly and 1 semi-annual.
The circulation of dailies was 62,839; of all others 558,135.
Michigan was ninth in rank of circulation.

In language, 439 were English, 2 French, 15 German, 6 Dutch and 2 Danish and Scandinavian.
Devoted to politics, 413; to religion, 11; to agriculture, 5; commerce and trade, 3; general literature, 1; medicine and surgery, 7; science and mechanics, 2; temperance and secret societies, 5; education, 9; children, 4; miscellaneous, 4.
Of the religious papers there were Baptist, 1; Methodist, 2; Reformed, 2; Catholic, 2; Second Advent, 3, and Unitarian, 1.

Lumber is the great manufacturing interest of Michigan, and the annual value of the product is more than one-fifth of that of the whole Union as shown by the following comparison:

THE LUMBER INTEREST.

Except Michigan only five States manufactured lumber to the value of $10,000,000.
They were Pennsylvania, $22,457,359; Wisconsin, $17,952,347; New York, $14,356,910; Indiana, $14,260,830; Ohio, $13,864,460.
ILLITERACY.

HEALTHFULNESS.

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS.

The flour interest is second only to lumber in amount and value in Michigan.
There were 706 mills, with a capital of $7,704,464; employing 2,254 men, with an annual product valued at $23,546,875.
The States exceeding Michigan in the value of the product were New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Ohio, Missouri, Indiana, and Wisconsin.

Michigan is the seventh State in the value of farms and farming implements, following behind Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa, the last State having a little less population, but all the others a far greater population.
It is a significant fact that the United States census returns the total value of farms in Michigan at $499,103,181, while the assessed valuation of all real estate only foots at $432,861,844.

Michigan is the tenth State in the value of live stock. All the States with greater population, except Kentucky, lead Michigan, while this State falls behind Kansas and Texas with less population.

In the staple agricultural productions, Michigan has a rank far above her population.
In wheat, with a yield in 1879 of 35,532,543 bushels, the only States producing more were Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.
In production to acres sown Michigan outranked these States.
In oats and barley she ranked ninth, and in buckwheat fourth, following behind New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
The bushels for each inhabitant were of corn 19, wheat 21.70, oats 11.11, barley .73. Of all kinds of grain the bushels to the inhabitant were 52.82, and to the rural inhabitant 68.63.
It was the fourth State in the production of potatoes, following New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, but in proportion to population was the first.
In orchard products it was the fifth State in the value, and first in proportion to population.
It was the fourth State in hops, and the sixth in butter.

SHEEP AND WOOL.

The States of California, Ohio, and Texas alone have more sheep than Michigan, and only the States of California and Ohio produced more pounds of wool.
In 1870 Michigan was the fourth State in the production of wool, the same in 1860, and the ninth in 1850.
Since 1850 she has passed the States of Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, Virginia, Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky, and has only been passed by California and Texas in the wool product.

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.

Michigan was the fifth State in the number of establishments engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements with 143 establishments.
New York had 265, Pennsylvania, 220, Illinois, 220, and Ohio, 156.

SHIP BUILDING.

Michigan was first in the value of ship building of all interior States, and was only exceeded in the Union by Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware, Massachusetts and Maine.
The value of vessels built in this State was $2,034,636.

STEAM AND WATER POWER.

Michigan was the fifth State in the power applied to manufactories.
The total steam and water power was 164,747 horse power, an increase of 55.64 per cent from 1870.
Water represented only 34,365 horse power.
States leading Michigan were Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts and Ohio.

THE SALT INTEREST.

Michigan was the first State in the salt manufacture.
Her product of 12,425,885 bushels in 1879 was valued at $2,271,913.
Other States producing more than 1,000,000 bushels were New York with 8,748,203 bushels;
West Virginia with 2,679,438 bushels, and Ohio with 2,650,301 bushels.
The value of Michigan salt was more than double that of any other State.

COPPER AND IRON.

The copper produced in Michigan mines in amount and value, as shown by the United States census of 1880, was greatly in excess of that of all other States.
The total for the United States was 56,920,266 pounds, of which Michigan produced 45,830,262 pounds.
The value of the entire product was $8,886,295, of which Michigan is credited with $7,979,232.
In iron ore Michigan also stands first in the amount and value of the product, with 1,837,712 tons valued at $6,034,648.
Pennsylvania follows with 1,820,561 tons of ore valued at $4,318,999.
New York, New Jersey and Missouri were the other States, whose production exceeded $1,000,000 each in value.

STATE DEBT.

Michigan, Illinois and Nevada, were the only States in 1880 reported as either out of debt or with a sinking fund sufficient to meet it when due.

DENSITY OF POPULATION.

The settled area of Michigan was reported in 1880 at 47,230 square miles.
Taking out of the estimate all cities of 8,000 inhabitants or over, and there were from two to six inhabitants on 9,800 square miles; six to eighteen on 8,200 square miles; eighteen to forty-five on 12,600 square miles; and forty-five to ninety on 16,630 square miles.

For the whole State, cities included, the population was 28.5 to the square mile.
In 1870 it was 20.6; in 1860 it was 13; in 1850 it was 6.9; and in 1840 it was 3.7.

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION.

Of the total population,
1,493,764 were living at an elevation of between 500 and 1,000 feet above the sea-level;
117,351 between 1,000 and 1,500 feet;
and 25,822 above 1,500 feet.
In relation to temperature,
56,560 lived where the mean annual temperature was below 40 degrees;
175,099 where it was from 40 to 45 degrees;
1,405,278 where it ranged from 45 to 50.
In accordance with the mean temperature of July,
525,885 lived on the range between 65 and 70 degrees, and 1,111,052 between 70 and 75 degrees.
As to the mean temperature of January, 45,477 lived where it ranged from 10 to 15 degrees; 73,563 between 15 and 20 degrees; 1,484,444 between 20 and 25 degrees;
and 33,453 between 25 and 30 degrees.
As to maximum temperature, 1,223,431 lived where the extreme was between 95 and 100 degrees, and 413,506 where the range was from 100 to 105.
At minimum temperature 48,955 lived where it fell to 35 and 40 below zero; 32,053 from 30 to 35 below; 275,838 from 25 to 30 below; 964,875 from 20 to 25 below; and 315,216 from 15 to 20 below.

In the distribution of population in accordance with the annual rainfall,
44,688 inhabitants lived where the annual rainfall was from 20 to 25 inches; 685,664 where it was from 30 to 35 inches; 401,781 where it was from 35 to 40 inches; and 504,804 where it was from 40 to 45 inches.
As to the spring and summer rainfall, 37,799 inhabitants had from 10 to 15 inches;
1,052,896 from 15 to 20 inches; and 546,242 from 20 to 25 inches.

The majority of the inhabitants of Michigan have less annual rainfall than those of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, but have more than Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kansas and Nebraska.
In spring and summer rainfall the amount is greater in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, and more than Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska and Kansas.
Michigan has less drought than any State west of Lake Huron on the Northern border.